Like many co-operatives, The Co-operative Group runs a community dividend scheme where each year a share of the businesses profits are re-invested into the communities where they trade. Next time you head out for tea, you might want to check which places in Cambridge have been given a one star rating for their food hygiene. Purified positive-sense viral RNA is capable of causing infection and subsequent generation of complete, functional viruses in host cells. Footnote 9 The most likely route of transmission to personnel handling infectious prions is through accidental inoculation or ingestion of infected tissues. The business also acts as a wholesaler for other consumers' co-operatives within the UK through Co-operative Federal Trading Services , and symbol groups such as Costcutter Supermarkets Group. Further details on biosecurity are provided in Chapter 6. All personnel handling imported animal pathogens, toxins, and other regulated infectious material in a facility authorized to import or receive imported material via transfer , under an animal pathogen import permit under the HAA and HAR have specific responsibilities summarized in Section 1.
The objectives of this programme area are: To strengthen international risk assessment. Several hundred priority chemicals or groups of chemicals, including major pollutants and contaminants of global significance, should be assessed by the year , using current selection and assessment criteria; b.
To produce guidelines for acceptable exposure for a greater number of toxic chemicals, based on peer review and scientific consensus distinguishing between health- or environment-based exposure limits and those relating to socio-economic factors.
Activities a Management-related activities Governments, through the cooperation of relevant international organizations and industry, where appropriate, should: Promote mechanisms to increase collaboration among Governments, industry, academia and relevant non-governmental organizations involved in the various aspects of risk assessment of chemicals and related processes, in particular the promoting and coordinating of research activities to improve understanding of the mechanisms of action of toxic chemicals; c.
Encourage the development of procedures for the exchange by countries of their assessment reports on chemicals with other countries for use in national chemical assessment programmes.
Give high priority to hazard assessment of chemicals, that is, of their intrinsic properties as the appropriate basis for risk assessment; b. Industry should participate actively. Industry should provide data for substances produced that are needed specifically for the assessment of potential risks to human health and the environment. Such data should be made available to relevant national competent authorities and international bodies and other interested parties involved in hazard and risk assessment, and to the greatest possible extent to the public also, taking into account legitimate claims of confidentiality.
Develop criteria for priority-setting for chemicals of global concern with respect to assessment; b. Review strategies for exposure assessment and environmental monitoring to allow for the best use of available resources, to ensure compatibility of data and to encourage coherent national and international strategies for that assessment.
Means of implementation a Financial and cost evaluation Most of the data and methods for chemical risk assessment are generated in the developed countries and an expansion and acceleration of the assessment work will call for a considerable increase in research and safety testing by industry and research institutions. The cost projections address the needs to strengthen the capacities of relevant United Nations bodies and are based on current experience in IPCS.
It should be noted that there are considerable costs, often not possible to quantify, that are not included. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation. Major research efforts should be launched in order to improve methods for assessment of chemicals as work towards a common framework for risk assessment and to improve procedures for using toxicological and epidemiological data to predict the effects of chemicals on human health and the environment, so as to enable decision makers to adopt adequate policies and measures to reduce risks posed by chemicals.
Promotion of research on, and validation of, methods constituting a replacement for those using test animals thus reducing the use of animals for testing purposes ; c. Promotion of relevant epidemiological studies with a view to establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between exposure to chemicals and the occurrence of certain diseases; d. Promotion of ecotoxicological studies with the aim of assessing the risks of chemicals to the environment. International organizations, with the participation of Governments and non-governmental organizations, should launch training and education projects involving women and children, who are at greatest risk, in order to enable countries, and particularly developing countries, to make maximum national use of international assessments of chemical risks.
International organizations, building on past, present and future assessment work, should support countries, particularly developing countries, in developing and strengthening risk assessment capabilities at national and regional levels to minimize, and as far as possible control and prevent, risk in the manufacturing and use of toxic and hazardous chemicals.
Technical cooperation and financial support or other contributions should be given to activities aimed at expanding and accelerating the national and international assessment and control of chemical risks to enable the best choice of chemicals.
Harmonization of classification and labelling of chemicals Basis for action Adequate labelling of chemicals and the dissemination of safety data sheets such as ICSCs International Chemical Safety Cards and similarly written materials, based on assessed hazards to health and environment, are the simplest and most efficient way of indicating how to handle and use chemicals safely.
For the safe transport of dangerous goods, including chemicals, a comprehensive scheme elaborated within the United Nations system is in current use. This scheme mainly takes into account the acute hazards of chemicals. Globally harmonized hazard classification and labelling systems are not yet available to promote the safe use of chemicals, inter alia, at the workplace or in the home.
Classification of chemicals can be made for different purposes and is a particularly important tool in establishing labelling systems. There is a need to develop harmonized hazard classification and labelling systems, building on ongoing work. A globally harmonized hazard classification and compatible labelling system, including material safety data sheets and easily understandable symbols, should be available, if feasible, by the year Governments, through the cooperation of relevant international organizations and industry, where appropriate, should launch a project with a view to establishing and elaborating a harmonized classification and compatible labelling system for chemicals for use in all United Nations official languages including adequate pictograms.
Such a labelling system should not lead to the imposition of unjustified trade barriers. The new system should draw on current systems to the greatest extent possible; it should be developed in steps and should address the subject of compatibility with labels of various applications.
Evaluate and, if appropriate, undertake studies of existing hazard classification and information systems to establish general principles for a globally harmonized system; b. Develop and implement a work plan for the establishment of a globally harmonized hazard classification system.
The plan should include a description of the tasks to be completed, deadline for completion and assignment of tasks to the participants in the coordinating group; c. Elaborate a harmonized hazard classification system; d. Draft proposals for standardization of hazard communication terminology and symbols in order to enhance risk management of chemicals and facilitate both international trade and translation of information into the end-user's language; e.
Elaborate a harmonized labelling system. The Conference secretariat has included the technical assistance costs related to this programme in estimates provided in programme area E. Governments and institutions and non-governmental organizations, with the collaboration of appropriate organizations and programmes of the United Nations, should launch training courses and information campaigns to facilitate the understanding and use of a new harmonized classification and compatible labelling system for chemicals.
In strengthening national capacities for management of chemicals, including development and implementation of, and adaptation to, new classification and labelling systems, the creation of trade barriers should be avoided and the limited capacities and resources of a large number of countries, particularly developing countries, for implementing such systems, should be taken into full account.
Information exchange on toxic chemicals and chemical risks Basis for action The following activities, related to information exchange on the benefits as well as the risks associated with the use of chemicals, are aimed at enhancing the sound management of toxic chemicals through the exchange of scientific, technical, economic and legal information.
The London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade are a set of guidelines adopted by Governments with a view to increasing chemical safety through the exchange of information on chemicals.
Special provisions have been included in the guidelines with regard to the exchange of information on banned and severely restricted chemicals. The export to developing countries of chemicals that have been banned in producing countries or whose use has been severely restricted in some industrialized countries has been the subject of concern, as some importing countries lack the ability to ensure safe use, owing to inadequate infrastructure for controlling the importation, distribution, storage, formulation and disposal of chemicals.
The ILO chemicals convention calls for communication between exporting and importing countries when hazardous chemicals have been prohibited for reasons of safety and health at work.
Within the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT framework, negotiations have been pursued with a view to creating a binding instrument on products banned or severely restricted in the domestic market.
Notwithstanding the importance of the PIC procedure, information exchange on all chemicals is necessary. To promote intensified exchange of information on chemical safety, use and emissions among all involved parties; b. To achieve by the year , as feasible, full participation in and implementation of the PIC procedure, including possible mandatory applications through legally binding instruments contained in the Amended London Guidelines and in the FAO International Code of Conduct, taking into account the experience gained within the PIC procedure.
Governments and relevant international organizations with the cooperation of industry should: Strengthen national institutions responsible for information exchange on toxic chemicals and promote the creation of national centres where these centres do not exist; b.
Strengthen international institutions and networks, such as IRPTC, responsible for information exchange on toxic chemicals; c. Implement the PIC procedures as soon as possible and, in the light of experience gained, invite relevant international organizations, such as UNEP, GATT, FAO, WHO and others, in their respective area of competence to consider working expeditiously towards the conclusion of legally binding instruments.
Assist in the creation of national chemical information systems in developing countries and improve access to existing international systems; b. Improve databases and information systems on toxic chemicals, such as emission inventory programmes, through provision of training in the use of those systems as well as software, hardware and other facilities; c. Provide knowledge and information on severely restricted or banned chemicals to importing countries to enable them to judge and take decisions on whether to import, and how to handle, those chemicals and establish joint responsibilities in trade of chemicals between importing and exporting countries; d.
Provide data necessary to assess risks to human health and the environment of possible alternatives to banned or severely restricted chemicals. United Nations organizations should provide, as far as possible, all international information material on toxic chemicals in all United Nations official languages.
Governments and relevant international organizations with the cooperation of industry should cooperate in establishing, strengthening and expanding, as appropriate, the network of designated national authorities for exchange of information on chemicals and establish a technical exchange programme to produce a core of trained personnel within each participating country. Means of implementation Financing and cost evaluation Establishment of risk reduction programmes Basis for action There are often alternatives to toxic chemicals currently in use.
Thus, risk reduction can sometimes be achieved by using other chemicals or even non-chemical technologies. The classic example of risk reduction is the substitution of harmless or less harmful substances for harmful ones. Establishment of pollution prevention procedures and setting standards for chemicals in each environmental medium, including food and water, and in consumer goods, constitute another example of risk reduction.
In a wider context, risk reduction involves broad-based approaches to reducing the risks of toxic chemicals, taking into account the entire life cycle of the chemicals. Such approaches could encompass both regulatory and non-regulatory measures, such as promotion of the use of cleaner products and technologies, pollution prevention procedures and programmes, emission inventories, product labelling, use limitations, economic incentives, procedures for safe handling and exposure regulations, and the phasing out or banning of chemicals that pose unreasonable and otherwise unmanageable risks to human health and the environment and of those that are toxic, persistent and bio-accumulative and whose use cannot be adequately controlled.
In the agricultural area, integrated pest management, including the use of biological control agents as alternatives to toxic pesticides, is one approach to risk reduction. Other areas of risk reduction encompass the prevention of chemical accidents, prevention of poisoning by chemicals and the undertaking of toxicovigilance and coordination of clean-up and rehabilitation of areas damaged by toxic chemicals.
The International Council of Chemical Associations ICCA has introduced initiatives regarding responsible care and product stewardship aimed at reduction of chemical risks. ILO has published a Code of Practice on the prevention of major industrial accidents and is preparing an international instrument on the prevention of industrial disasters for eventual adoption in The objective of the programme area is to eliminate unacceptable or unreasonable risks and, to the extent economically feasible, to reduce risks posed by toxic chemicals, by employing a broad-based approach involving a wide range of risk reduction options and by taking precautionary measures derived from a broad-based life-cycle analysis.
Consider adopting policies based on accepted producer liability principles, where appropriate, as well as precautionary, anticipatory and life-cycle approaches to chemical management, covering manufacturing, trade, transport, use and disposal; b. Undertake concerted activities to reduce risks for toxic chemicals, taking into account the entire life cycle of the chemicals.
These activities could encompass both regulatory and non-regulatory measures, such as promotion of the use of cleaner products and technologies; emission inventories; product labelling; use limitations; economic incentives; and the phasing out or banning of toxic chemicals that pose an unreasonable and otherwise unmanageable risk to the environment or human health and those that are toxic, persistent and bio-accumulative and whose use cannot be adequately controlled; c.
Adopt policies and regulatory and non-regulatory measures to identify, and minimize exposure to, toxic chemicals by replacing them with less toxic substitutes and ultimately phasing out the chemicals that pose unreasonable and otherwise unmanageable risk to human health and the environment and those that are toxic, persistent and bio-accumulative and whose use cannot be adequately controlled; d.
Promote establishment and strengthening, as appropriate, of national poison control centres to ensure prompt and adequate diagnosis and treatment of poisonings; g. Reduce overdependence on the use of agricultural chemicals through alternative farming practices, integrated pest management and other appropriate means; h. Require manufacturers, importers and others handling toxic chemicals to develop, with the cooperation of producers of such chemicals, where applicable, emergency response procedures and preparation of on-site and off-site emergency response plans; i.
Identify, assess, reduce and minimize, or eliminate as far as feasible by environmentally sound disposal practices, risks from storage of outdated chemicals. Industry should be encouraged to: Amounts less than 0. For example, if a product contains 0.
In addition to the nutrition label, products may display certain nutrition information or health claims on packaging. These health claims are only allowed by the FDA for "eight diet and health relationships based on proven scientific evidence", including: The nutrition facts label currently appears on more than 6. The FDA does not require any specific typeface be used in the Nutrition Facts label, mandating only that the label "utilize a single easy-to-read type style",  though its example label uses Helvetica.
In January , Trans fat was required to be listed under saturated fat. This was the first significant change to the Nutrition Facts panel since it was introduced in In , the U. Food and Drug Administration proposed several simultaneous improvements to nutrition labeling for the first time in over 20 years. Proposed changes included a new design requiring serving sizes to more accurately reflect how many servings the average individual is actually consuming.
The proposed labels were to also list how much sugar is added rather than inherent to a product, as well as declaring the amount of Vitamin D and potassium in a product. The proposal to indicate sugar added during food production, in particular, was brought forward by the FDA as a measure to counter the increase in per capita sugar consumption in the US, which over the last decades exceeded the limits recommended by scientific institutions and governmental agencies.
The rules for the new design were finalized on May 20, As of , the TTB does not require alcoholic beverage packaging to have a nutrition facts label.
Since at least , consumer groups have lobbied the TTB to require labelling disclosing Nutrition Facts information. Packaging must disclose alcohol content in some circumstances. Mandatory information on the label varies by type of beverage, and includes: Health researchers have called for the mandatory labelling of food products with added caffeine , which is a psychoactive nervous system stimulant.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Canadian health claims for food. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 24 November Packaged foods must list nutritional facts". Archived from the original on 31 October Nutrition Labeling; Questions G1 through P8. A Food Labeling Guide. See also Guidance for Industry: Food and Drug Law History". Retrieved 11 February Agriculture Information Bulletin Number Retrieved November 25, European Union Credit Institutions: Planning and Development Amendment No.
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