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Its biosynthesis has been described to be the result of a condensation of oleic acid and serine Attygalle AB et al. The production of conjugated linoleic acid by dehydration and isomerization of ricinoleic acid has been described Villeneuve P et al. Currently, item can be shipped only within the U. This page was last edited on 31 August , at CED - Crtng Visuals: TBA - Network Communications.

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Bacterial Biofilm: Its Composition, Formation and Role in Human Infections

Test results within 1 year of your application and must be attached with your completed application. Water testing is available from private companies or your local health department.

Provide a brief description of your business to be included with your application to become a home processor. The following items should be included:. Any products to be sold to consumers must be packaged to protect them from contamination. A label must be affixed to the package with:. Manufacturers name and address 3. Complete list of ingredients in order of predominance by weight. The label must declare all of the components of the ingredient you use [ie: The easiest way is to copy directly from the ingredient package for each of the ingredients.

Any duplications of an ingredient can be deleted after listing where it is most concentrated ie: Within two 2 weeks of sending your application, a Food Regulatory Specialist will contact you to arrange a home processing facility inspection.

You will be sent a copy of all relevant federal and state regulations for your review and to prepare your facility for inspection. After sending your completed application, please check your Email periodically for correspondence from our Regulatory Specialists.

Inspection appointments are typically made over email. For applicants without email access, appointments will be made by phone. Send questions regarding home processing to homeprocessing ncagr. After receipt of your application the Food Regulatory Specialist may determine that product testing is required to ensure your product can be manufactured in a home kitchen.

Product testing is available through N. State University or other commercial labs. A home-based kitchen inspection checks the kitchen to be sure it is clean, constructed of suitable materials and is free of any pest activity insect or rodent. Remember that indoor pets would also be considered pests.

No indoor pets or pests are allowed. Standard household equipment and appliances are acceptable. The equipment and appliances can be used for both personal and commercial use. Standard household sinks are acceptable.

The kitchen should be free of decorative materials which could collect dust. Running water at a suitable temperature and pressure is required. There is not a specific temperature requirement for hot water, as long as it is hot enough to accomplish cleaning and sanitizing of equipment and utensils. Waste should be conveyed away from the house in an acceptable fashion Sewer or Septic Tank Any lights in the kitchen or any processing or packaging areas should be shielded against accidental breakage.

The inspection will be focused on the kitchen and other areas where processing and packaging of products may take place. Areas of the house in which materials, ingredients and equipment are stored will also be inspected. Inspectors may also walk around the exterior of the house to verify that the foundation is intact and will not allow for the entry of pests. A permit is not issued, but inspectors will alert the homeowner to any possible violations of the N.

Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. There are several types of tax numbers. They are found mainly in some special triglycerides where they acylate the sn-3 position and formed estolide tetraester triglyceride. They are found in seed oil from Euphorbiaceae. A hydroxy allenic acid 8-hydroxy-5,6-octadienoic acid was described in an estolide from Sebastiana commersoniana Spitzer V.

Lipids , 32, The w-hydroxyl group was shown to be acylated by a conjugated diene with 10 carbon atoms. The allenic acid was shown to have antifungal properties Ohigashi H et al Agr Biol Chem , 36, , the triglyceride being not recommended for animal diet.

Original estolides, named mayolenes, have been isolated from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar Pieris rapae Smedley SR et al. These estolides are formed by a hydroxylinolenic acid esterified by a saturated fatty acid CC Bioassays demonstrated that they are potent deterrent, playing a defensive role against predators.

Lipidomic analysis of mouse adipose tissue revealed the existence of estolides that were elevated to fold in these mice. Several isomers differ by the branched ester position on the hydroxy fatty acid e. These estolides are synthesized in vivo and regulated by fasting and high-fat feeding.

Their level correlates highly with insulin sensitivity and are reduced in adipose tissue and serum of insulin-resistant humans, These compounds could have the potential to treat type 2 diabetes Yore MM et al. Besides classical wax esters, the secretions of the human Meibomius glands meibum which are mixed with tears, contain estolides based on a w -hydroxylated fatty acid mainly from 30 to 34 carbons acylated on the terminal hydroxyl by oleic acid Due to their amphiphilic anionogenic nature, these compounds may be responsible for stabilization of the tear film lipid layer.

Industrially, estolides are now synthesized from vegetal oils and are used as ingredients in various industrial fields. Thus, these new functional fluids have a rapidly growing importance in cosmetics, coatings, and biodegradable lubricants.

They are largely synthesized from oleic acid warmed with perchloric or sulfuric acid Cermak SC et al. JAOCS , 78, The average number of fatty acid units added to the first base fatty acid named "estolide number" varied as a function of reaction temperature. The secondary ester linkages are more resistant to hydrolysis than those of triglycerides, and the unique structure of the estolide results in materials having far superior physical properties than mineral oils and vegetable and petroleum-based oils.

They are said to improve intra-fiber moisture retention, to restore elasticity, and prevent mechanical damage. In skin care systems, they provide significant moisturization benefits. Estolides made from vegetal oils have a good oxidative stability and low-temperature properties. Oxidative stability may be improved in removing the unsaturation of oleic acid and the low-temperature performance may be improved in using oleic acid and various short or middle-chain saturated fatty acids lauric or myristic acid, coconut oil.

Other chemical developments are in progress to obtain molecules with required functional fluid conditions Cermak S et al. A kind of estolide has been described in the stem bark of an Euphorbiaceae Alchorena laxiflora , a plant used in Africa to treat some diseases Sandjo LP et al. That compound is formed of a C14 fatty acid with a double bond in the n-3 position esterified with a hydroxylated propionic acid.

Macrolactins are macrolides containing three separate diene structure elements in a membered lactone ring which were first reported to be produced by several marine bacteria Gustafson K et al. Several macrolactin structures have been described in marine bacteria, the simplest one macrolactin A is shown below.

These antibiotics may be considered equivalent to a tetrahydroxylated tetracosaenoic acid with an ester bond between the carboxyl group and one of the hydroxyl groups lactone structure. They are considered to be potent antiviral against herpes and HIV and cytotoxic against melanoma agents that also have antibacterial activity. It was suggested that the hydroxyl group at C may play an important role in the antibacterial activity of these compounds. There is yet no information about the mechanism of action of this group of compounds.

Parcoblattalactone is a macrocyclic lactone deriving from a carbon fatty acid hydroxylated in position w. This compound is a sex pheromone of the insect Parcoblatta lata , which represents the most abundant arthropod biomass in the pine forests of the southeastern United States Eliyahu D et al. This pheromone will be used for monitoring populations of insects that comprise an important food source for endangered bird species.

Lipoxygenase activities give rise to important hydroxylated derivatives mainly from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, lipoxygenation of The monohydroxy derivatives consist of the positional isomers 5-hydroxy The dihydroxy derivatives include products arising from 5- or lipoxygenation. In addition to In leucocytes neutrophiles , hydroxy It appears to be also produced by vascular endothelial cells where it prevents platelet attachment and has vasoconstrictor activity.

It has been shown that Allium species onion and garlic which are known as folk medicine for the treatment of atherosclerosis and some ulcers, were shown to be rich in two trihydroxylated derivatives of Furthermore, it was shown that these products have PGE-like activity in in vitro bio-assay tests Claeys M et al.

Similar products were isolated from roots of Bryone ala , used also for similar medicinal purposes as onion Panossian AG et al. A review of their formation and function in blood and vascular cells may be consulted Lagarde M, Eur J Lipid Sci Technol , , A critical overview on the dihydroxy-docosatrienes may be also consulted Balas L et al.

Biosynthetic pathways and structures of resolvins, protectins, and maresins generated enzymatically from DHA. Thus, lipidomic analysis of exudates, vascular, leukocytes and neural cells treated with aspirin have revealed hat DHA was converted into 17R-hydroxy series of dihydroxy- and trihydroxy-docosanoids termed " resolvins " D-series.

They are formed during the resolution phase of acute inflammatory response and are able to counter proinflammation signals Serhan CN et al. The metabolism and pharmacological functions of these resolvins have been reviewed Serhan CN et al. On another hand, brain ischemia was shown to induce a release of DHA from membrane phospholipids which then generates via enzymatic oxygenations novel derivatives named " docosatrienes ".

These dihydroxy-containing DHA derivatives were termed " neuroprotectins ". The main member of the series was 10,17S-docosatriene neuroprotectin D1 which was proved to be a potent regulator of inflammation Marcheselli VL et al. Several isomers of protectin D1 were synthesized using soybean lipoxygenase and tested for their ability to inhibit human blood platelet aggregation.

It was discovered that the oxygenated products having the E,Z,E-conjugated triene motif and collectively named poxytrins PUFA oxygenated trienes , might have potent antithrombotic potential Chen P et al. The biosynthetic pathway of that DHA derivative in retinal pigment cells and its protective effects from apoptosis induced by an oxidative stress were reported Mukherjee PK et al.

These compounds may be the basis of new therapeutic approaches to enhance photoreceptor survival in retinal degenerations. A review of the rescue and repair processes during photoreceptor cell renewal mediated by neuroprotectin D1 may be consulted Bazan NG et al. Some isomers exhibiting the 11t,13c,15t geometry, instead of 11t,13t,15c as in protectin D1 poxytrins family , are able to inhibit strongly blood platelet aggregation Chen P et al.

Besides 10,17S-docosatriene, the analogue compound 7,17S-docosatriene was shown to be produced during aerobic oxidation of DHA by soybean lipoxygenase Butovich IA et al. Enzymatic investigations suggest that these compounds might have anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, which could be exerted, at least in part, through direct inhibition of 5- and 15 lipoxygenase.

An overview of their role in brain physiology and a discussion on the potential of using DHA signaling in the development of treatments in patients suffering from stroke have been released by Niemoller TD et al. Prost Lipid Mediat , 91, One neuroprotectin and several resolvins have been shown to be biosynthesized by isolated trout brain cells providing the first evidence for the conservation of these structures from fish to humans as chemical signals in diverse biological systems Hong S et al.

Prost Lipid Mediat , 78, Maresin 1 7,dihydroxydocosa-4 Z ,8,10,12,16 Z ,19 Z -hexaenoic acid is a new lipoxygenase product from DHA produced in macrophages. It appears as potent as neuroprotectin D1 in its anti-inflammatory activity Serhan C N et al. Vascular endothelial cells treated with aspirin was shown to convert eicosapentaenoic acid EPA into an intermediate product which gives a bioactive compound 5,12,18R-trihydroxy-EPE resolvin E1.

New resolvins derived from docosapentaenoic acid of the n-6 family These products resulting from lipoxygenase activity were determined to be potent anti-inflammatory agents. A comprehensive review of the metabolism and properties of resolvins, docosatrienes and neuroprotectins may be consulted Serhan CN et al.

An overview of their synthesis and their biological significance have been reviewed Balas L et al. A review of the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their oxygenated or hydoxylated metabolites in the blood vessel compartment may also be consulted Lagarde M et al.

Hypoxilins , hydroxy-epoxy derivatives of arachidonic acid are described with lipoxygenase products. They can have a variable number of carbon atoms and the sulfur atom in different position 3-thia or 4-thia.

The most commonly 3-thia fatty acids studied are presently: Isomeric epithio stearic acids have been described as minor constituents in canola oil. They were tentatively identified were the 9,12; 8,11; and 7,10 epithio stearic acids Wijesundera RC et al. The general formula is given below. New fatty acid derivatives have been isolated from the regurgitant of the grasshopper species Schistocerca americana.

These compounds named caeliferins are composed of saturated and monounsaturated sulfated a-hydroxy fatty acids in which the w-carbon is substituted with a sulfated hydroxyl group Alborn HT et al. Of these, the Fatty acid amides are natural products formed by connecting straight-chain, mostly unsaturated, aliphatic acids with various amines by an amide linkage.

More than derivatives are known from eight plant families consisting of various combinations of acids with 23 amines. These compounds are found in nature, but are seldom encountered in fats and oils. As many other nitrogen derivatives of fatty acids amino acids, hydrazides, acid azides, nitriles, isocyanates, amines , they are of considerable interest and economic importance and have, therefore, been the object of much research and industrial attention mainly in the 50s.

They are now produced on a large scale, their chemical features resulting in high surface activities. These compounds are useful as fiber lubricants, detergents, flotation agents, textile softeners, antistatic agents, wax additives, and plasticizers but some of them have also specific biological functions. Various data of specific molecules can be searched for their origin and their physicochemical properties. They also act as plant growth-promoting substances. Some of them possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties and are responsible for immunomodulatory and cannabinomimetic effects review in: Greger H, Phytochem Rev , 15, They can also be produced from plant erucic acid treated with ammonia.

These compound have a broad spectrum of uses, e. Simple amides of fatty acids alkylamides were shown to be very potent bio-effectors. For example, in chicken chorioallantoid membrane and rat cornea, it was shown that amide of cis-docosenoic acid erucamide discovered in the bovine mesentery is an angiogenic factor Wakamatsu K et al. Angiogenic activity induction of capillary development was demonstrated by synthetic primary amides of t-docosenoic acid, The amide of 9-octadecenoic acid oleamide was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats.

This compound is recognized now to be the endogenous factor inducing sleep in mammals Cravatt, B F et al. It seems that oleamide may have many other physiological functions, including thermoregulation and sensitivity to pain. Oleamide is synthesized by the brain cells from oleic acid and ammonium Sugiura, T et al.

Apart from its effect on the central nervous system, oleamide modulates the function of the immune cells. Unexpectedly, oleamide is an important pheromone attractant of the hermaphroditic shrimp Lysmata boggessi.

Zhang D, et al. It is located on the cuticle and its bioactivity is enhanced when incorporated as a pheromone blend with hexadecanamide and methyl linoleate.

Primary amides were identified in the cuticle of Phyllostachys aurea leaves, with a characteristic chain length profile peaking at C The amides were present exclusively in the epicuticular layer and thus at or near the surface, where they may affect plant-herbivore or plant-pathogen interactions Racovita RC et al.

Cerulenin is an antifungal antibiotic discovered in the culture filtrate of Cephalosporium caerulens Matsumae A et al. This epoxy-fatty amide has 12 carbon atoms, two double bonds and an epoxy ring.

The inhibition of the fatty acid synthase by cerulenin leads to cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human cancer cell lines, effect which suggested a possible cancer treatment. It blocks the synthesis of polyketides in a wide variety of organisms and has a wide range of antimicrobial activity inhibiting the growth of yeast-like fungi, such as Candida , Saccharomyces and Cryptococcus.

Briefly, the origins of this research can be traced to when Kehul FF et al. J Am Chem Soc , 79, identified N-palmitoylethanolamine as an anti-inflammatory factor present in egg yolk, soybeans, and peanuts. Renewed interest in this and similar N-acylethanolamines arose with the discovery of N-arachidonoylethanolamine anandamide. An overview of the biochemistry and pharmacology of anandamide has been released Hansen HS et al. Thus, simple lipoamino acids with an amide link between one fatty acid and one aminoacid serine, ornithine, thyrosine, glycine, proline or leucine or domamine or aminoalcohol anandamide are described.

Other amide-containing lipids complex lipoamino lipids are found containing a fatty acid N-linked to an aminoacid lysine, ornithine, alanine, proline linked itself to an alcohol ester link.

A review on the role played by these molecules in pain modulation has been released by Walker JM et al. Prost Lipid Med , 77, Fatty acid amides are found in grasses and microalgae.

Hexadecanamide and octadecanamide were isolated from the shoots of marine grass Zostera marina Kawasaki W et al. The cyclopropyl fatty amide, grenadamide, was detected from the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula Sitachitta N et al. Several alkylamides have been isolated from Echinacea sp Asteraceae , one of the most popular medicinal plant used for treatment and prevention of common cold and respiratory tract infections Woelkart K et al.

These alkylamides differ in chain length and unsaturation, many having a diynoic structure. They show structural similarity with anandamide and pharmacological studies have shown that they bind significantly to cannabinoid CB2 receptors. A method for the isolation of C18 fatty acid amides from lipid extracts and their analysis by mass spectrometry was reported Sultana T et al. The simultaneous quantification of anandamide and other endocannabinoids in brain tissue has been reported Chen J et al.

Several benzyl alkylamides macamides were isolated from maca Lepidium meyenii lipid extract. Tubers of that plant, used as food in Peru and as dietary supplements " Peruvian ginseng " elsewhere, contain macamides which could have promising biological activities. The simplest structure, described in Zhao J et al. Analogous structures with various chain lengths, unsaturation or substitutions methoxy or keto group were also described in the same material Zhao J et al.

Similar structures, Cyano or thiocyanato undecanoic acid phenylamide, have been synthesized as corrosion inhibitors to prevent the corrosion of metals in acidic media Yildirim A et al. These molecules generate a protective layer by adsorption to the metal surface via electrons present on their heteroatoms 0, S, N. More complex fatty acid amides one of them is shown below were discovered in leaves of Chrysanthemum morifolium Compositae.

These isobutylamides, having one or two acetylenic bonds and three or four double bonds, were associated with host-plant resistance against a major insect pest facing greenhouse industry Frankliniella occidentalis Tsao R et al.

The N-alkylamides dodeca-2,4-dienoic acid 1 and dodeca-2,4,8,tetraenoic 2 acid isobutylamides from the plant purple coneflower Echinacea were shown to be likely responsible for the early treatment for colds and as immunostimulants Gertsch J et al.

The isobutylamide of deca- trans -2, trans dienoic acid, isolated from the roots of Piper nigrum and various Asteracaea, is a modulator of the sensory neuron function. It is an efficient model compound for sensory studies but also for diabetes, cancer, infection and inflammatory research.

The isobytylamide of deca- trans -2, cis -6, trans trienoic acid Spilanthol , isolated from several species of Spilanthes , is likely responsible for the anesthetic properties of these plants. Natural alkylamides, called sanshools , are found in the pericarp of the fruit of Szechuan pepper Menozzi-Smarrito C et al.

Four sanshools were described in that fruit, they differ from the configuration of one double bond and the length of the polyenic chain 12 or 14 carbons.

Two are shown below. One common characteristic of all these compounds is their agonistic activity on TRPV1, consistent with their burning properties Sugai E et al. A comprehensive review on fatty acid amides may be found on the site of Biochimica Moscow. Fatty hydroxamic acids may be regarded as derivatives of both fatty acids and hydroxylamine. These compounds are receiving a lot of attention due to their biological activity as inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase with potent topical antiinflammatory activity Hamer RR et al.

Contrary to some short chain hydroxamic acids, fatty hydroxamic acids are not commercially available and are synthesized chemically Blatt A, Organic synthesis, , 67, vol 2, J Wiley or by lipase-catalyzed reaction Suhendra D et al.

Azamacrolides are alkaloids found in defensive droplets from glandular hairs of the pupa of the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Attygalle AB et al. Chemical studies have shown that the major constituent of this secretion, epilachnene, is the propylazacyclotetradecenolide.

Its biosynthesis has been described to be the result of a condensation of oleic acid and serine Attygalle AB et al. Fatty acids may be naturally derivatized with a methoxy or an acetoxy group. Among them, 2-methoxyhexadecenoic acid, 2-methoxyhexadecenoic acid and 2-methoxy hexadecanoic acid were identified in phospholipids of Caribbean sponges. These monounsaturated fatty acids were shown to have antimicrobial activity. All these compounds were postulated to originate from bacteria in symbiosis with sponges.

Several other saturated and unsaturated 2-methoxylated fatty acids were isolated from phospholipids of a Caribbean sponge Callyspongia fallax Carballeira NM et al.

The saturated were identified as 2-methoxytetra-, penta- and octadecanoic acids, the monounsaturated as 2-methoxytetra-, penta- and hexadecenoic acids. The 2-methoxymethyltetradecanoic acid was identified, together with other 2-methoxylated CC16 fatty acids, in the sponge Amphimedon complanata from Puerto Rico Carballeira NM et al.

This fatty acid is the methoxylated analog of the bacterial 2-hydroxymethyltetradecanoic acid and was shown to be highly cytotoxic to human cancerous cells Carballeira NM et al. These methoxylated fatty acids could have originated from bacteria in symbiosis with the sponge. Two 2-methoxy fatty acids with a very long carbon chain 2R,5Z,9Z methoxymethyl-5,9-hexacosadienoic acid and 2R,5Z,9Z methoxymethyl-5,9-hexacosadienoic acid were isolated from the Caribbean sponge Asteropus niger and were shown to be effective topoisomerase IB inhibitors Carballeira NM et al.

Several saturated 2-methoxylated fatty acids from C10 to C14 were synthesized and were shown to display some degree of inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Carballeira NM et al. Fatty acids methoxylated at other positions have been identified from a few natural sources. Other acids have originated from bacteria, such as methoxyheptadecanoic and methoxynonadecanoic acids identified in Helicobacter pylori from human gastric mucosae Inamoto Y et al.

Unusual long-chain methoxylated fatty acids were detected in the fungi Blumeria graminis the causal agent of wheat powdery mildew Muchembled J et al. They were identified as 3-methoxydocosanoic and 3-methoxytetracosanoic acids. In plants, several 3-acetoxy fatty acids with 14, 16 or 18 carbon atoms are constituents of the partially acetylated acylglycerols found in floral oils of several species of Diascia Srophulariaceae Dumri K et al. In Calceolaria and Lysimachia , a diacylglycerol, 1,2-di- 3-acetoxyoctadecenoy -sn-glycerol is the major floral lipid.

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