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We can add this to the shake. Create a memory in this session, sing your heart out, and have a few laughs as you join other riders to sing and cycle along to your favourite songs, past and present. Definitely a defining moment in wanting to take my fitness life back on the right track. Very few of our leaders and officials bother to enter the public discou rse to shape its direction, defend the union movement and to assert the class agenda of the working class. Experience what sets YogaFit apart, making it the most popular style of yoga for the fitness industry. Toda y, industrialized humanity is almost wholly dependent on the energy provided by hydrocarbon fuels that were created by geological processes operating on the remains of organisms , and humanity is mining and burning those hydrocarbon deposits about a million times as fast as they were created. Virginias Health Food Airport Blvd.

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In , the entire human genome was sequenced. Sequencing the chimpanzee genome was accomplished in , for orangutans in , and for gorillas in The comparisons of human and great ape DNA have yielded many insights, but the science of DNA analysis is still young.

What has yielded far more immediately relevant information has been studying human DNA. The genetic bases of many diseases have been identified. Hundreds of falsely convicted Americans have been released from prison, and nearly 20 from death row , due to DNA evidence's proving their innocence. Human DNA testing has provided startling insights into humanity's past. For instance, in Europe it appears that after the ice sheets receded 16, to 13, years ago, humans repopulated Europe , and for all the bloody history of Europe over the millennia since then, there have not really been mass population replacements in Europe by invasion, migration, genocide, and the like.

Europeans just endlessly fought each other and honed the talents that helped them conquer humanity. There were some migrations of Fertile Crescent agriculturalists into Europe , but other than hunter-gatherers being displaced or absorbed by the more numerous agriculturalists, there do not appear to be many population replacements.

In 2 , a study suggested that male farmers from the Fertile Crescent founded the paternal line for most European men as they mated with the local women. The Neanderthal genome has been sequenced , as well as genomes of other extinct species, and for a brief, exuberant moment, some scientists thought that they could recover dinosaur DNA , Jurassic-Park -style. Although dinosaur DNA is unrecoverable, organic dinosaur remains have been recovered, and even some proteins have been sequenced, which probably no scientist believed possible in the s.

Since , scientists have discovered planets in other star systems by using a variety of methods that reflect the improving toolset that scientists can use, especially space-based telescopes. Before those discoveries, there was controversy whether planets were rare phenomena, but scientists now admit that planets are typical members of star systems. Extraterrestrial civilizations are probably visiting Earth , so planets hosting intelligent life may not be all that rare. Those interrelated and often mutually reinforcing lines of evidence have made many scientific findings difficult to deny.

The ever-advancing scientific toolset, and the ingenuity of scientists developing and using them, and particularly the multidisciplinary approach that scientists and scholars are increasingly using, have made for radical changes in how we view the past.

Those radical changes will not end any time soon, and what follows will certainly be modified by new discoveries and interpretations, but I have tried to stay largely within the prevailing findings, hypotheses, and theories, while also poking into the fringes and leading edges somewhat. Any mistakes in fact or interpretation in what follows are mine. Thousands of years ago, the Greek philosophers Democritus and Leucippus argued that the universe was comprised of atoms and the void, and Pythagoras taught that Earth orbited the Sun.

Hun dreds of years later, a Greek mathematician and engineer, Heron of Alexandria , described the first steam engine and windmill and is typically credited as the inventor, but the actual inventors are lost to history. Western science and technology did not significantly advance for the next millennium, however, until ancient Greek writings were reintroduced to the West via captured Islamic libraries.

The reintroduction of Greek teachings, and the pursuit of their energy technologies, ultimately led to the Industrial and Scientific revolutions. Scientific practice is ideally a process of theory and experimentation that can lead to new theories. There are three general aspects of today's scientific process, and it developed from a method proposed by John Hershel , which Charles Darwin used to formulate his theory of evolution.

Facts are phenomena that everybody can agree on, ideally produced under controlled experimental conditions that can be reproduced by other experimenters. Hypotheses are then proposed to account for the facts by using inductive also called abductive logic.

The hypotheses are usually concerned with how the universe works, whether it is star formation or evolution. If a hypothesis survives the fact-gathering process — often by predicting facts that later experiments verify — then the hypothesis may graduate to the status of a theory.

The principle of hypothesis and falsification is primarily what distinguishes science from other modes of inquiry. The rele gation of hypotheses and theories to oblivion, without getting a fair hearing, as the pioneer dies in obscurity or is martyred , only to be vindicated many years later, has been a typical dynamic.

The man who first explained the dynamics behind the aurora borealis , Kristian Birkeland, died in obscurity in , with his work attacked and dismissed. Endosymbiotic theory , the widely accepted theory of how mitochondria , chloroplasts , and other organelles came to be, was first proposed in , quickly dismissed, and not revived until the late s.

Doubt instead of faith is the guiding principle of science. Only hypotheses that have survived numerous attempts to falsify them graduate to becoming theories. Only scientists who can weather the attacks from their peers will survive long enough to see their hypotheses receive a fair hearing.

Wit h what I know has been suppressed by private interests, often with governmental assistance, mainstream science is largely irrelevant regarding many important issues that could theoretically be within its purview. Paradoxically, scientists can also fall for fashionable theories and get on bandwagons. There can be self-reinforcing bias in that the prevailing hypotheses can determine what facts are adduced, and potential facts thus escape inquiry, particularly when entire lines of inquiry are forbidden by organized suppression and the excesses of the national security state, as well as the indoctrination that scientists are subject to, as all people are.

When the Big Bang supposedly happened, there was no matter, but only energy. Only when the universe had sufficiently expanded and cooled, less than a second after the Big Bang, did matter begin to appear, which is considered to be comprised of relatively low energy states.

However, there will be limitations, and some of them follow. As Einstein and his colleagues readily admitted, the corpus of scientific fact and theory barely says anything at all about how the universe works. Sometimes, paradigms shift and scientists see the universe with fresh eyes.

The ideals and realities of scientific practice are often at odds. Ironically, when scientists reach virtual unanimity on a theory, it can be a sign that the theory is about to radically change, and many if not most scientists will go to their graves believing the theory that they were originally taught , no matter how much evidence weighs against it.

A key tension in main stream science has long been the conflict between specialists and the generalists and multidisciplinarians. New hypotheses often come from generalists and their inductive reasoning, and the best of them usually have some flash of insight that leads them to their breakthroughs, which is called intuition or the Creative Moment.

I found that it is a close cousin to psychic ability, if not the same thing. Speciali sts are often those on the ground, getting their hands dirty and doing the detailed work that forms the bedrock of scientific practice. Without their efforts, science as we know it would not exist. However, mainstream science has long suffered from the tunnel vision that overspecialization encourages, and R.

Buckminster Fuller thought that the epidemic overspecialization and naïveté of mainstream scientists in his time was a ruling class tactic to keep scientists controlled and unable to see the forest for the trees. Many paradigmatic breakthroughs in science and technology were made by non-professionals, specialists working outside of their field of professional expertise, and generalists traversing disciplinary boundaries. A comprehensivist tries to understand the details well enough to refrain from making unwarranted generalizations while also striving for that big-picture awareness.

There are also top-down and bottom-up ways to approach analyses; each can provide critical insight, and scientists and other analysts often try to use both. Anot her key set of tensions are those between theorists, empiricists, and inventors.

Theorists attempt to account for scientific data and ideally predict data yet to be adduced, which tests the validity of their hypotheses and theories. Empiricists often produce that scientific data. Inventors create new technologies and techniques. Albert Ein stein is the quintessential example of a theorist, who never performed experiments relating to his theories but accounted for experimental results and predicted them.

Michelson and Morley , who performed the experiment that produced results that various scientists wrestled with for a generation before Einstein proposed his special theory of relativity , never suspected that their experiment would lead to the theories that it did. Einstein expected that his theories would eventually be falsified by experimental evidence, but that the best parts of his theories would survive in the new theories.

The Wright brothers w ere typical inventors. The theorists were spectacularly wrong, the empiricists had abandoned their primary principle of observation, and it was up to inventors to finally open their eyes and minds, years after the public witnessed the new technologies working. Such inventions often threaten to upend the very foundations of scientific disciplines, which is primarily why they have been ignored as they have, if they are not actively suppressed.

The fin dings of mainstream science can be particularly persuasive when lines of evidence from numerous disciplines independently converge, which has become increasingly common as scientific investigations have become more interdisciplinary. DNA testing is clearly showing descent relationships and ghost ancestors are being reconstructed via genetic testing. Numerous dating methods are used today, and more are regularly invented.

Typically, a new technique will emerge from obscurity, often pioneered by a lonely scientist. For instance, dendrochronology , the reading of tree rings, was developed as a dating science by the dogged efforts of an astronomer who labored in obscurity for many years.

He was a fortunate pioneer; when he died after nearly 70 years of effort, he had lived to see dendrochronology become a widely accepted dating method. Eventually, the new method can break past the inertia and active suppression, and sometimes even if the breakthrough threatens powerful interests. Then the newly accepted method can be seen as a panacea for all manner of seemingly insoluble problems, in the euphoric, bandwagon phase.

The history of science is filled with fads that faded to oblivion, sometimes quickly, while advances that survived the withering attacks are eventually seen in a more mature light, in which its utility is acknowledged as well as its limitations. DNA and molecular clock analyses have largely passed through those phases in recent years. In the s, the idea of room-temperature superconductors had its brief, frenzied day in the sun when high-temperature superconductors were discovered.

Cold fusion had a similar trajectory, although the effect seems real and MIT manipulated their data to try to make the effect vanish. After the bolide impact hypothesis broke through a taboo that lasted for more than a century, some scientists tried explaining all mass extinctions with bolide impacts.

In the dating sciences , the tests have all had their issues and refinements. The equipment has become more sophisticated, problems have been resolved, and precision has been enhanced. While there are continuing controversies, dating techniques have advanced just like many other processes over the history of science and technology. In , dates determined for fossils and artifacts are generally only accepted with confidence when several different samples are independently tested and by different kinds of tests, if possible.

If thermoluminescence , carbon , and other tests produce similar dates, as well as stratigraphic evidence , paleomagnetic evidence , current measurements of hotspot migration rates across tectonic plates , along with genetic and other evidence introduced in the past generation, those converging lines of evidence have produced an increasingly robust picture of not only what happened, but when.

In the s, I found the dating issue enthralling and saw it assailed by fringe theorists and by catastrophists in particular. A couple of decades later, I reached the understanding that, like all sciences, dating has its limitations and the enthusiasm for a new technique can become a little too exuberant, but dating techniques and technologies have greatly improved in my lifetime.

Controversies will persist over various finds and methods used, and scientific fraud certainly occurs, but taken as a whole, those converging lines of independently tested evidence make it increasingly unlikely that the entire enterprise is a mass farce, delusion, or even a conspiracy, as many from the fringes continue to argue.

There is s till a Flat Earth Society , and it is not a parody. I have looked into fringe claims for many years and few of them have proven valid; even if many were, their potential importance to the human journey was often minor to trifling.

Quite o ften, the pioneers of science and technology receive no credit at all , not even posthumous vindication , as others steal their work and become rich and famous. But if private and governmental interests do not suppress the data and theory, as is regularly achieved regarding alternative energy and other disruptive technologies , usually the data will eventually win.

But the data does not always win. Lead received a similar clean bill of health by industrially funded laboratories as the conflicts of interest were surreal, and the public was completely unaware of who was really managing such public health issues and why.

Similar situations exist today. Perhaps the most significant challenge to mainstream science is the fact that numerous advanced technologies already exist on Earth, including free energy and antigravity technologies, but they are actively kept from public awareness and use. They and other exotic technologies developed in the above-top-secret world operate on principles that make the physics textbooks resemble cave drawings.

Thou sands of scientists and inventors have independently pursued FE technologies, but all such efforts, if they had promise or garnered any success, have been suppressed by a clandestine and well-funded effort of global magnitude.

Although the gr eatest physicists were arguably mystical in their orientation , they rarely explored the nature of consciousness in the way that modern human potential efforts have.

When I was 16 years old, it was demonstrated to me, very dramatically, that everybody inherently possesses psychic abilities , which falsifies today's materialistic theories of consciousness. Millions of people had similar experiences during the last decades of the 20 th century when performing such exercises. Far too often, when scientists discuss materialism, they compare it to organized religion, particularly its fundamentalist strains, as if those are the only two alternatives, when they are on opposite ends of a spectrum in one way and two sides of the same coin in others.

Ironically, organized skepticism is largely comprised of anti-scientists who try to deny that such abilities of consciousness are even worthy of scientific investigation. That would be like asking a Wall Street executive in the s what his opinion of communism was. I was also regularly dismayed by orthodox scientific and academic works that dealt with the human brain, consciousness, human nature, UFOs , FE technology, and the like, in which the authors accepted declassified government documents at face value as in not wondering what else remained classified, for starters or looked no further than 19 th -century investigations.

Armchair scientists who accept the skeptics' word for it have taken the easy way out and rely on highly unreliable "investigators" to tell them about the nature of reality. They consequently do not have informed opinions, or perhaps more accurately, they have disinformed opinions.

Not all main stream scientists relegate consciousness to a mere byproduct of chemistry. The greatest physicists knew that materialism was a doctrine built on unprovable assumptions, which amounts to a faith. White scie nce still has almost nothing to say about the nature of consciousness. However, Black Science covert, largely privatized, and the same province where that advanced technology is sequestered is somewhat familiar with the nature of consciousness and considers it to be far more than a byproduct of chemistry.

The assumption that the entire universe is a manifestation of consciousness is not only unassailable by White Science, but is probably a foundational assumption of Black Science and mystics. The ba ttle between materialists and religious orders over the years, in which materialist evolutionists grapple with creationists and intelligent design proponents, seems to be a feud between two fundamentalist camps. Nowhere in such battles are the abilities or wisdom of accomplished mystics found. The nature and role of consciousness, both in this dimension and beyond it, are likely far too subtle to be profitably engaged by the level of debate that predominates today.

As this essay will explore later, those issues are not merely fodder for idle philosophical pursuit, but at their root lies the crux of the current conundrum that humanity finds itself in, as we race toward our self-destruction. White Science does not really know what energy is ; it can only describe its measurable effects.

Our universe may have begun as pure energy and even if it did not, all matter appears to be comprised of energy , and consciousness may be required for our universe to exist at all, which may be part of the quantum paradox.

There is evidence that evolution is not purely the province of chance mutations, but that organisms can affect their evolution at the genetic level. The gre atest scientists readily admitted that the theories and data of physics, that hardest of the hard sciences, drew highly limited descriptions of reality, and those scientists were usually, to one extent or another, mystics.

If textbook science falls far short of explaining reality, what can be said within its framework that is useful? Our industrialized world is based on textbook science and feats such as putting men on the Moon were performed within the parameters of textbook science. With the waning of overspecialization and overreliance on reductionism in the last decades of the 20 th century, multidisciplinary works have proliferated and will tend to dominate the references for this essay.

I have found them not only very helpful for my own understanding, but they are appropriate references for a generalist essay. I have also avoided scientific terminology when feasible. The main stream theory is that matter consists of elementary particles which are all forms of energy , and their interaction with the Higgs field is responsible for all mass.

Almost all mass in the known universe consists of protons in hydrogen atoms, and those protons are in turn comprised of quarks , and electrons and neutrinos are the other first generation fundamental particles. Protons have a positive electric charge, electrons a negative charge, and neutrinos no net charge.

Today, mainstream science recognizes four forces in the universe: Gravity attracts matter to matter, and is thought to be responsible for the formation of stars, planets, and galaxies.

But the universe seems to be built from processes , not objects. If FE, antigravity, and related technologies finally come in from the shadows, the elusive Unified Field may come with them, and the Unified Field might well be consciousness, which will help unite the scientist and the mystic, and that field may be divine in nature.

Energy may be best seen as motion Electron shells, how they are filled, and reactivity Helium and the noble gases Electron energy and quantum leaping Temperature How atoms react Elements in the human body Types of electron bonds, including hydrogen bonds This c hapter presents several energy and chemistry concepts essential to this essay. Even though scientists do not really know what energy is they do not know what light or gravity are , either , energy is perhaps best seen as motion, whether it is a photon flying through space, the "orbit" of an electron around an atom's nucleus or of Earth around the Sun, an object falling to Earth, a river flowing toward the ocean, air moving through Earth's atmosphere, rising and falling tides, and blood moving through a heart.

The classical view of an electron had an electron orbiting the nucleus much in the same way that Earth orbits the Sun, but quantum theory presents a different picture, in which an electron is a wave that only appears to be a particle when it is observed.

When one electron shell is filled, electrons begin to fill shells farther from the nucleus. For the simplest atoms it works that way, but for larger atoms, particularly those of metallic elements, electrons fill shells in more complex fashion and electrons begin to fill subshells not necessarily in the shell closest to the nucleus. When an electron is unpaired or in an unfilled shell, it can be a valence electron, which can form bonds with other atoms. In most circumstances, only unpaired electrons form bonds with other atoms.

Electron bonds between atoms provide the basis for chemistry and life on Earth. For that simplest element, hydrogen, its lone electron has an affinity to pair up with another electron, and that smallest shell contains two electrons.

Hydrogen is never found in its monoatomic state in nature, but is bonded to other elements, as that lone electron finds another one to pair with, which also fills that simplest shell.

In its pure state in nature, hydrogen is found paired with itself and forms a diatomic molecule. In chemistry notation, it is presented as H 2. Fluorine is so reactive that if it were sprayed on water, the water would burn.

The ele ment with two protons in its nucleus is helium the number of protons determines what element the atom is , and its electrons are paired and its shell is filled. Consequently, helium does not want to share its electrons with anything.

Helium is the most non-reactive element known. It has never bonded with any other element, even fluorine. Their electron shells are completely filled. It is not a smooth variation of distance, but only certain distances are possible. When an electron changes its distance, it jumps in a process known as quantum leaping. That quantum leaping reflects how electrons gain or release energy. When light hits an atom, if it is absorbed by an electron, the photon gives the electron the energy to move to an orbit farther away.

When an electron emits light, that lost photon removes energy and the electron falls to a lower orbit. The potential energy in the electron as it orbits the nucleus and the potential energy in a rock that I hold above the ground are similar, as the diagram below demonstrates.

Below is a diagram of a hydrogen atom as its electron orbits farther from the nucleus when it absorbs energy. As the diagram depicts, the atom gets larger. Lateral movement also called translational motion is called temperature. While finding an accurate definition of temperature can be a frustrating experience, temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy the energy of motion in matter. As with the behavior of photons, at the atomic level the concept of temperature can break down, and classical behaviors emerge as groups of atoms lose their quantum properties.

The transferred energy can be stored by the electrons leaping into higher orbits. They can in turn release that energy in the form of photons and return to lower orbits. The increas ed movement of heated atoms is why substances expand in volume.

The more motion, the higher the temperature, and just as an engine will fly apart when the RPMs go too high, when an atom vibrates too fast, an electron can leave the atom entirely and the atom becomes an ion. As substances become hotter, the electrons will be in higher orbits, and will fall farther when giving off photonic energy, so the photons have more energy shorter wavelengths.

Get a substance hot enough and it will emit photons that we can see visible light. Those first visible photons will be on the lower end of the spectrum of light that we can see with our eyes, and will be red. Get the substance hotter and the light can turn white, which means that we are seeing the full visible spectrum of light. Get matter hot enough and it becomes plasma , as electrons float in a soup with nuclei.

Those electrons are too energetic to be captured by nuclei and placed into shells. When tw o atoms come close to each other, if the potential energy of their combined state is less than their potential energy when they are separate, the atoms will tend to react. But the reaction only happens when the electron shells come into an alignment so that the reaction can happen. If the shells do not meet in the proper alignment and velocity, the reaction will not happen and the atoms will bounce away from each other.

The faster and more often the atoms collide, the likelier they are to react and reach that lower energy state. Chemical electron shell reactions need to reach their activation energy to occur, and this is measured in temperature.

The activation energy for hydrogen and oxygen to react and form water is about degrees Celsius o C. The fusion of a helium nucleus releases more than a million times the energy that it takes to ionize a hydrogen atom. As will be discussed later , some reactions have a cumulative result of absorbing energy , while others release it. The first can be seen as an investment of energy, while the second can be seen as consuming it. Below is a diagram of two hydrogen atoms before and after reaction, as they bond to form H 2.

Elements with their electron shells mostly, but not completely, filled are, in order of electronegativity: In that upper right corner of the periodic table , of largely filled electron shells, phosphorus and sulfur also reside.

Carbon and hydrogen have their valence shells half filled. Flu orine forms the smallest negatively charged ions known to science and wrecks organic molecules for reasons discussed later in this essay. Organisms do not use fluorine, except for some plants that use it as a poison. The classic example of this is the water molecule. In a body of water, oxygen atoms will attract hydrogen atoms of neighboring molecules, and a relatively weak attraction known as a hydrogen bond forms.

Below is a picture of hydrogen bonds in water. Those hydrogen bonds make water the miraculous substance that it is. The unusual surface tension of water is due to hydrogen bonding. Water has a very high boiling point for its molecular weight compare the boiling points of water and carbon dioxide , for instance because of that hydrogen bonding. Those energy and chemistry concepts should make this essay easier to digest. Timelines of En ergy, Geology, and Early Life. Provides the power for all of Earth's geophysical, geochemical, and ecological systems, with the only exception being radioactivity within Earth.

Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions by millions of times, making all but the simplest life pre- LUCA possible. Oxygen is generated, which complex life will later use, which makes non-aquatic life possible and also preserves the global ocean. Allows for larger cells and far greater energy generation capacity — pound for pound, a complex cell uses energy , times as fast as the Sun creates it.

Dramatic climb in atmospheric oxygen , to eventually achieve modern levels, begins. Largest organisms ever, and greatest energy storage and delivery to any biome, and they become the basis for coal. Among the first terrestrial animals with upright posture, enabling great aerobic capacity and domination of terrestrial environments.

Great energy innovation to reduce reproductive costs, and animals are the beneficiaries, as they act as reproductive enzymes in greatest symbiosis of plant and animal life, which allows flowering plants to dominate terrestrial ecosystems. Allows protohumans to leave trees , become Earth's dominant predator , alter ecosystems , and cooked food helped spur dramatic biological changes, including encephalization in human line.

Changes the terms of engagement with prey and reduces hunting risk of large animals and increases effectiveness. Allows for first low-energy transportation, and ability to travel to unpopulated continents. Provides the local and stable energy supply that allowed for sedentary human populations and civilization.

Allows for tools highly improved over stone, for greater energy effectiveness of human activities. Turns global ocean into low-energy transportation lane and allows Europe to conquer the world. First attempt to create "free energy" technology is abandoned due to lack of funding. First man-powered flight , and establishment of first company to mass-produce automobiles. Albert Einstein published his special theory of relativity and equation for converting mass to energy. Forms the framework for 20 th century physics, including the energy that can be liberated from an atom's nucleus.

Oil-rich Ottoman Empire dismembered by industrial powers , establishing imperial and neocolonial rule in Middle East. USA harnesses the atom's power, and first use is vaporizing two cities , and the greatest period of economic prosperity in history begins. The USA's national security state is born , Roswell incident. This is the final technology, along with free energy technology, to make humanity a universally prosperous and space-faring species. Former astronaut nearly dies immediately after rejecting the American military's UFO research "offer".

The incident is one of many that demonstrate that the UFO issue is very real, but happened to somebody close to me. A close personal friend is shown free energy and antigravity technologies, among others , and another close friend had free energy technology demonstrated. Those incidents are two of many that demonstrate that the free energy suppression issue is very real, but were witnessed by people close to me.

Abbreviated Geologic Time Scale. Earth , Moon , and oceans form. Earth is bombarded with planetesimals. Atmosphere is primarily comprised of carbon dioxide. Too much uncertainty and too little evidence to confidently draw maps, but landmasses existed. Earth cools to habitable temperature. Continents begin forming and growing. Atmosphere is mostly nitrogen, but oxygen begins to increase. All life is bacterial. Oxygenic photosynthesis first appears. Complex cell eukaryote first appears.

Aerobic respiration first appears. Sexual reproduction first appears. Grazing of photosynthetic organisms first appears. Supercontinent Rodinia breaks up. Second Snowball Earth event. Atmosphere oxygenated to near modern levels. Final banded iron formations appear. First land plants may have appeared. Deep ocean is oxygenated. Mass extinction of microscopic eukaryotes. First large animals appear. First mass diversification of complex life.

Most modern phyla appear. Paleo-Tethys Ocean begins forming. Ice age begins and causes mass extinction which ends period. Complex life continues diversifying. First large reefs appear. Mollusks proliferate and diversify. Nautiloids are apex predators. First fossils of land plants recovered from Ordovician sediments.

Period ends with first great mass extinction of complex life. Hot, shallow seas dominate biomes. Climate and sea level changes cause minor extinctions. Reefs recover and expand. Fish begin to develop jaws. First invasions of land by animals. First vascular plants appear. Continents closing to form Pangaea, ice age begins at end of Devonian and cause mass extinction , possibly initiated by first forests sequestering carbon. First vertebrates invade land. Atmospheric oxygen levels highest ever, likely due to carbon sequestration by coal swamps.

Ice age increases in extent, causing collapse of rainforest. Learn what power is, how to coach to it, and how to use it to motivate in a variety of different ways. There is power in Power! Learn how to identify common low back pain triggers. Remember, there is always a cause for back pain! In this session, you'll be introduced to a system developed by leading back health expert Dr.

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The good news is that the right type of exercise can help to mitigate the development of osteoarthritis, which is a common issue for those undergoing this procedure. The question is how do you determine what exercise is right for your clients? In this session, you will learn some simple yet effective assessment tools that will help you to individualize exercise choices and techniques.

You will also walk away with some of the foundational components of our hip hygiene program, which has been designed to keep your hips healthy and happy. Learn how to increase strength in just seconds with neural hack activation drills. Motor control is your brain's ability to coordinate mobility and stability for efficient movement, and is sensory driven.

Poor control leads to a threat response from the nervous system, causing decreased strength, power, speed, and mobility. Stimulation to key sensory input areas enhances your nervous system's safety response. Imagine a second routine that anyone can do before and after training to increase strength and decrease injury!

You'll discover points located on the feet, face, sternum, torso, and knees. Be prepared to take off your shoes! Ten exercises, ten reps, ten rounds! Hammer your core and learn to use it to connect the upper and lower body. Power expression and performance can be optimized for all fitness levels.

Walk away understanding how to train core function with purpose! A dynamic team-driven distance race and technique tutorial featuring the WaterRower. In teams of four, participants will endure an extraordinary series of robust rowing races to reveal how to improve performance and win through superior strategy, synchronicity, and stamina. Gold, Silver, and Bronze medals will be awarded to each qualifying team. Welcome to the full-body workout athletes swear by for sports conditioning, cross-training, and a strong, injury-resistant core.

Every last muscle will be feeling it! This session allows you to unwind, get stretched, and relax more deeply into restorative poses than ever before! Discover a unique fusion of familiar restorative yoga postures blended with powerful Thai yoga therapy techniques. Learn how compassionate touch can enhance your own classes and how hands-on assists can help participants enter more blissful states of relaxation. Since stress is the prime cause of most illness and lost time at work, it's imperative that fitness professionals understand the science behind reducing stress and the impact that it has on the body.

Using principles from restorative yoga, this in-depth, therapeutically based workshop will guide you toward a deeper connection with your physical, mental, and emotional bodies, resulting in a more balanced central nervous system for optimum wellness.

This session is useful for personal practice and also provides easy tips and techniques to help your clients release chronic tension and stored stress from their bodies. Postural assessment is the first pillar of yoga therapy examination and begins from the base s of support in all standard postures: A fundamental principle of yoga is that alignment of structure dictates the flow or communication of prana, or life energy.

We'll learn to observe asymmetries in various postures: This generates an introspective attitude as we sense, then confirm visually, how our awareness shifts in our yoga poses. With HIIT being a workout staple, experience how responsive the Keiser M3i is to interval training and discover new formatting ideas that go beyond the science to applied experiences. Layer in a marketing plan and you have a HIIT program that is results-based and revenue-driven! Knowledge keeps our clients safe and having a great playlist sets the mood, but only a superb delivery keeps members engaged and asking for more.

We assume that great instructors are talented and skilful, but there is something more, something intangible, that makes them special. Truly great instructors are also great performers.

Presence, showmanship, theatrics, and voice modulation are some of the topics we'll explore to bring out the performer in you! The three C's are the secret behind every successful cycling instructor: Take a deep dive into what makes an ordinary class extraordinary and learn trade secrets to take your class to the next level.

This is one workshop you do not want to miss! Science is proving that we have more control over the aging process than previously understood. Neither instructors nor clients should accept chronic pain, stiffness, loss of mobility, poor posture, or weight gain as inevitable.

In fact, healthy muscle cells, fascia, and connective tissue can keep you youthful and energetic throughout your years. Essentrics is designed for all levels of fitness, even those getting back into exercise after a long sedentary period. Trainer Jo will share how to maintain balance: This session includes topics like 'train yin and yang,' 'walk in and out,' body transformation nutrition ,taekwondo ,tai chi, weight training, and sport conditioning training.

A healthy pelvic floor means more than doing kegels. Proper strengthening and stabilizing of the pelvic floor creates the correct foundation for each movement in the body. Known in the yoga world as moola bandha literally "root lock" , the pelvic floor has been an integral part of yoga for thousands of years.

Understanding the mechanics of the muscles involved and having the ability to simply and effectively cue your clients to engage their pelvic floor is a crucial element for the fitness professional or yoga teacher. We'll cover anatomical theory, physical poses, and a short practice.

That yellow jersey requires mental toughness and a never-quit conviction that you can reach a goal bigger than yourself. Learn to cultivate true grit through your coaching. This workshop is based on cutting-edge sport psychology strategies designed to add volume and intensity to your instructor playbook.

This is a comprehensive course that will increase your knowledge of how to perform CPR on adults in any emergency. This session is offered on Friday at 7: We'll look at the nervous systems' involvement in muscle tightness and decipher why many people don't get positive effects from stretching.

Without providing stability through motion, could our stretching techniques be inhibited? Can using only body weight create an effective workout for any level client? Explore a workout that takes you through a series of standing exercises designed to strengthen and tone from the ground up. No additional props or external resistance are needed in this creative full-body training session that targets muscular strength and endurance, balance, and control. Exercise variations are included to increase or decrease challenge and intensity, and we'll also discuss cueing and motivating techniques.

A functional fitness program that rapidly tones and shapes muscles through a dynamic combination of strengthening and stretching. Designed to develop long, lean, flexible muscles with immediate changes to posture and range of motion, it's perfect for both men and women of all fitness levels.

This zero-impact, weight-free workout rebalances the body, prevents and treats injuries, and unlocks tight joints.

Teaching Essentrics as a standalone workout or as a complement to other activities will protect your joints, give you overall flexibility, and offer a sustainable approach to long-lasting health. You can prolong your career doing what you love!

Writing about health, nutrition, and fitness for magazines and the web — and sharing that published content via social media channels — opens the door to a higher profile and payment for your writing and services in the fitness industry. Discover tricks of the trade for crafting and sharing informative and entertaining articles and blog posts. Receive in-depth guidance from a seasoned writer for finding your place in the lucrative niche of health and fitness writing.

Come in with a sense of playfulness and adventure, leave with a sense of empowerment! This arm-balancing workshop will challenge you mentally and physically, yet with a centered and mindful practice, you may surprise yourself. Based on safety and using the seven principles of alignment in a space without expectations, judgment, or competition. Always wanted to try Firefly? We'll warm up both mind and body before focusing on step-by-step safety and alignment cues.

Along with a little inspiration and courage, we'll see where our practice takes us. The shoulder region is intricate: Our shoulders are used in almost every yoga pose: Building strong shoulders is crucial to be able to flow seamlessly from foundational poses like Downward Dog into more advanced poses like Headstand.

Understand the complexity of the shoulder, how to reduce injury, and build strength safely through yoga. Putting together cycling classes that keep riders engaged and challenged can be difficult at times. But knowing a few tricks will help you organize and execute a memorable ride. Beginning with a playlist selection that connects music with energy demands and following up with the correct balance of drills and games creates the perfect formula for cycling success.

If you're ready to ride, we're ready to deliver in this idea-packed session. Power lives in the transverse plane. Learn to unleash strength and power with circle walking, taken from the ancient world of martial arts. This tool can help your clients disassociate the upper body from the lower body during motion.

Foot control, hip stability, thoracic mobility, neck strength, and contralateral movement patterns are assessed and corrected with this fundamental movement. Circle walking acts as a force multiplier for power by accelerating improvement in everything else.

We'll also introduce more complex variations of yin and yang circular patterns. Be prepared to take your shoes off and have some fun! Referred to as the organ of form, fascia is a continuous matrix around our organs, muscles, joints, bones, and nerves. We know that maintaining fascia health leads to better circulation of fluids, mobility, recovery, and performance, and a decreased chance of injuries. The all-new Myobuddy Massager Pro is a professional-strength massager that treats trigger points and adhesions and addresses sore muscles quickly while helping to prep the body for movement.

Reap the benefits of healthy fascia and keep yourself and clients moving well! This baby boomer-based boot camp is focused on function with a healthy dose of modifications and motivation! You'll experience a workout that's heavy on strength, agility, balance, and core and walk away with imaginative exercises with layers and options to accommodate and appeal to a broad range of abilities.

A design schematic helps you efficiently organize classes that offer inspiration, purpose, and progression. Is your body craving a deeper stretch? Is your mind calling for stillness and calm? Yin Yoga is a quiet practice where we hold poses for minutes. We work through the ebb and flow of discomfort and comfort in the body like waves ranging in intensity, working with the connective tissue — tendons, fascia, and ligaments — to improve circulation and overall flexibility.

Join us for the perfect way to end your conference weekend with deep meditative stretches that will leave you feeling open, relaxed, and soothed. We respect your privacy. Foundations of Safety for Personal Practice and Teaching. Time Wednesday, Thursday 8: Number of CECs 4. Description This workshop gives instructors the tools to create inspiring Vinyasa yoga classes founded on flow yet grounded in the safety of exercise science.

Price Professional Member, Delegate: Fit and Focused Kids. Description Research has confirmed what yoga teachers already know: Description Effective flexibility training not only helps prevent injury, it improves muscle recovery, athletic performance, functional independence, and the client-trainer relationship.

Price Professional Member Delegate: From Then to Now. Number of CECs 3. Description A full one-day introduction to Hardstyle kettlebell techniques, practices, drills, and exercises. Description Two indisputable facts: Presenter Bodyshred Master Trainer.

Utilizing Jillian's interval approach to whole body circuit training 3 min. Elite workout methods like HIIT, PHA, plyometrics, super-setting, combo lifting, 3-dimensional movement possibilities, functional bodyweight training and much more, come together in one powerful class that offers you the most successful way to get lean and shredded fast.

This class is unparalleled in its approach and its results! Description This course is a general education course suitable for anyone interested in learning more about striking fundamentals. Notes What You Will Learn The course covers everything you need to teach basic punching, stance and movement technique as well as how to hold focus pads. Qualifying your clients for striking Striking specific mobilization and stabilization protocols Hand wrapping Footwork Straight punch, hook and uppercut technique Focus pad stance, position and shock absorption for straight punches, hooks and uppercuts Multiple punch combinations Shadow boxing and movement homework.

Description Crush your sales and marketing goals over the next 12 months! Description This intensive one-day course was developed in consultation with Dr. Stuart McGill and is for exercise professionals working with clients who suffer from chronic or intermittent non-specific lower back pain. You will be introduced to some of the frequent mechanisms that cause lower back pain, common myths, spine hygiene and exercise programming considerations.

Those who take this course will walk away with foundational principles and proven clinical tools that can improve client outcomes and reduce their pain.

Low back pain is a common occurrence and as an exercise professional you should have an understanding of potential mechanisms of that pain and how to address them. Number of CECs 2. Description Barre workouts can be both vigorous and enjoyable. Description Coach Benson, co-author of the new canfitpro PTS textbook, teaches the biomechanics of assessment and movement.

Description Savasanahhh is the perfect blend of yoga and Thai massage. Description Building on concepts and techniques learned in Part 1, this session will focus more on mobility and function than flexibility alone. Description Boot camp fitness instructors lead the fight against obesity, challenging participants to become their absolute best through the use of effective and exciting functional fitness training as practiced by elite military forces.

The results are body fat loss, improved strength and stamina, increased confidence, and higher spirits. We'll look at proper form and safety, planning and executing functional fitness programs for outdoor and indoor environments, cadence calls, circuit fitness training, military-style obstacle courses and fitness tests, fitness games, partner-assisted exercises, individual tracking techniques, and diet and nutrition.

Participants who successfully complete the course will receive a certificate within 30 days. Description A full-day course with all the information you need to be able to instruct group indoor cycling classes. Presenter Jeffrey Scott and Doris Thews. Presenter Hosted by Emma Barry with: Description Women Who Influence has become one of the most popular events at world fitness expo. Attendees will enjoy a healthy lunch, entertainment, networking, draw prizes, and each receive a special event swag bag with incredible gifts from our event sponsors.

Description Adopting long-term healthy habits is one of the hardest behavioural changes for many people. Number of CECs 1. Description High performance data has never been as accessible as right now. Description What does healthy communication consist of?

And how do we actually communicate? We'll discuss how we can communicate better with ourselves, in our relationships, and with our colleagues. This session will focus on the power of conscious language. An Integrated Holistic Approach.

Description Back pain affects many clients, yet its etiology and progression can be multidimensional. Description Increasing life expectancy has generated intense focus on the biological mechanisms of old age and longevity. In this research-driven presentation, Len unveils the 10 key rules to slow down aging, extend lifespan, and live optimally.

If you work with a mature population, this lecture will give you inspiring new interventions to share with these clients. Latest Ideas and Strategies. Description As the scientific, medical, and fitness communities shift their focus to the importance of recovery, what applications and takeaways exist for fitness professionals? Get an overview of some of the latest ideas and research on this topic and learn a variety of strategies and applications you can use to improve and monitor recovery for yourself, your clients, and your athletes.

Description From the draft to training camp to preseason to the championship, learn how to recruit, hire, develop, and retrain an amazing team of passionate, productive personal trainers.

This session will explore every component of the employee lifecycle and look at systems and best practices to help you create your dream team. Description You're a great personal trainer but you'd rather avoid having to ''fix your clients' daily dramas. Description You already knew that your gut is largely responsible for digestion, but we have long underestimated its power over immune system function, our emotions, and mental health.

Sometimes called 'the second brain,' the enteric nervous system will be the focus of this session. You'll leave with an understanding of how this fascinating system affects our lives and how keeping it healthy can positively affect health, fitness goals, and overall well-being. Intro to Interval Training, for a Level 1 Client.

Description An introduction to interval training and how to introduce it in a group class. Description This workshop utilizes extremely effective Variable Intensity Interval Training VIIT techniques with WaterRower drills and body resistance exercises uniquely arranged to muster muscle-fatigue like never before.

Description Clients with limited mobility or restricted movement need not shy away from exercise. Should you Stabilize or Mobilize. Description Have you ever heard the phrase "proximal stability leads to distal mobility and strength?

Description Yury explores the background to traditional tenets of Buddhist meditation, from principles to prana to practices. But beyond just learning the theory, you'll practice meditation to gain some new pranayama skills and drills that you can implement into your own life or use with clients and classes immediately for both physiological and psychological benefits. Cashing In on their Distinct Ideologies.

Description The generational differences between Millennials and Boomers are vast. This session profiles the unique behaviours of both groups, delving into their media preferences, spending habits, and attitudes to help your brand build strategies that will leverage the gaps between the two, all in an effort to drive traffic and member conversion.

Sell Smarter in the Modern Marketplace. Description When you type, text, or tweet, how persuasive are you? Do you get answered — or ignored? Forget firm handshakes and eye contact — first impressions in the 21st century are dependent on your digital persuasiveness.

In person, you have 8 seconds to make a first impression; online, it's 2. You'll leave this session empowered and equipped to attract attention, increase your influence, and win more opportunities in the digital age. Tune Into Your Inner Frequency. Description Meditation reduces stress, increases energy and mental clarity, and bolsters the immune system and overall vitality.

Injury Prevention and Awareness. Description For an athlete, injury can be a huge setback or even a career threat. Description Do you want to learn how to qualify and teach a client boxing basics such as the stance, jab and cross punches? We recommend each attendee bring a pair of boxing gloves.

Key Progressions for Core Training. Description Coach Vives will discuss concepts of fundamental, transitional, and functional exercise inspired by the developmental sequence, providing a progressive approach to applying functional exercises with an emphasis on vital core training.

Presenter Amanda Grant and Karine Opasinski. Description Think you have what it takes? Presenter Darin Dieterich and Barbara Klein. Description Barbara and Darin will share their training and teaching approach for clients suffering from athletic and weekend warrior-related injuries. This medical fitness approach will provide fun and clever exercises and combinations suitable for the fitness arena.

Description Does the music move you? Description A physical and mental journey that will unlock a different side of coaching indoor cycling.

The mind is our true motivator, and during this indoor cycling master class you'll actually experience how the mind controls what the body achieves. You'll be guided through races, powerful climbs, and flats utilizing the mind as a motivator through visualization, mental focus, and even relaxation. Mixing together the power of the mind and the body, see what you can truly achieve.

Description Learn the secret to creating buzz in the locker room and a wait list for your class. Description Join Gin Miller as she introduces the most exciting concept in group fitness since Step Aerobics. Description A brand new presentation on the emerging field of sports medicine focused on weight-training injuries.

Description Stairmaster has created a formula that allows clubs and trainers alike to make use of any and all available equipment options, employing unique interval protocols that result in endless options for plug-and-play workouts. Description This is a comprehensive course that will increase your knowledge of how to perform CPR on adults in any emergency.

Be sure to check your email for announcements of our exciting line-up! Description Learn the foundation of the kettlebell get-up, sometimes referred to as the Turkish get-up. Endorphins, Estrogen, and Empowerment.

Description Women have many unique health requirements, and there is fundamental information that every woman needs to know to live an optimal life.

Gillian will discuss how to make your hormones work for you to boost your energy, fitness, and health. Description Sacroiliac SI joint pain is a debilitating and problematic issue.

Description Based on scientific studies by Dr. Len Kravitz and colleagues, experience a multimedia journey through the physiology of anaerobic conditioning and the unique responses to various circuit-training protocols. Description The modern trainer is equal parts coach, nutritionist, and confidant.

In our quest to create functional and fit clients, we often see that people are moving in unsustainable and mechanically poor positions. Increases in intensity, load, metabolic demand, volume, speed, and novelty have moved the need to limit the reinforcement of movement compensation to the front of the coach's problem list.

We must be able to identify, anticipate, and limit an athlete's compensation strategies without reinforcing and contributing to movement-related dysfunctions down the road. You'll leave this fascinating session with practical tools to address and limit compensation patterning in your clientele. This is part 1 of a 2 part supersession. It is strongly recommended that you attend both parts. Description Evolve your core training and take it to the next level! Description Why do most coaches struggle so much in becoming successful business owners?

Description While our focus in this industry is to deliver physical, mental, and emotional change, many people feel stuck in life's labyrinth, afraid to try a new path. The only way to optimize our lives is to make time to review our daily habits frequently — our choices and practices are the true building blocks for a better future.

We'll look closely at how habits impact our ability to achieve goals. Learn how to hack your daily habits and maximize all of your efforts, as we explore a well-respected change management system that can be implemented to deliver immediate results. Description There are close to 3, startup companies innovating in the fitness technology space according to leading venture capital tracking site AngelList.

Description Stress and inflammation continue to garner medical and media attention, but why? What's the link between stress, inflammation, and overall quality of life? We'll review emerging research in this area and how it trumps our diet and activity programming. You'll leave this session with a deeper understanding of concepts and applications so you can expand your services and be more successful.

Intro to Integrated Bodyweight Training. Description An exciting four-event athletic challenge utilizing the WaterRower, Battle Ropes, and body-resistance exercises in teams of four athletes each. Description Can you already do splits and bridges but want to take your flexibility to the next level?

Description The shoulder is one of the most problematic joints in the body. Description Motherhood is a busy time and involves multifaceted movement. Description This intense circuit will release mobility impairments from head to toe. You will learn proven ways to get the most out of your people and create a winning culture that wins you profits. Discover how adding extra dimensions to the way you sell your personal training business can generate a greater income for you, faster results for your clients, and set the base for a higher client retention and referral rate.

You will leave with easy to apply skills, a revamped relationship with money and a new mindset about the way you see yourself as a sales Pro. Presenter Perry Tucciarone and Scott Wildeman.

Description The Prescription to Get Active movement started in one small town with one doctor and one recreation centre and has now expanded to two provinces, writing well over 20, prescriptions for gym passes in A doctor's prescription has the power to move people into action. You need to make sure your club is prepared and that you are a partner in this program that can change the face of the Canadian health club industry.

Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI.

At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems.

We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Under a Creative Commons license. Summary Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends.

Methods We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD and GBD

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