Bistro MD: Does This Very Popular Diet Really Work?

Eliminating carbs and lowering calories offers three pounds off per week.

Paleolithic
For most of the Lower Paleolithic, human societies were possibly more hierarchical than their Middle and Upper Paleolithic descendants, and probably were not grouped into bands , [50] though during the end of the Lower Paleolithic, the latest populations of the hominin Homo erectus may have begun living in small-scale possibly egalitarian bands similar to both Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies and modern hunter-gatherers. Ounce for ounce, potato skin has more fiber, iron, potassium, B vitamins and vitamin C than the flesh. What can I do as I have been told that soy is bad. Please do check out the Budwig diet. They make several flavors including a almond-toasted coconut one, and their coffee and seasonal products are dreamy as well! Long story but hopefully caught early.. Bistro MD was developed by Dr.

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Harmful or Harmless: Soy Lecithin

Please tell me if you take organic tablets, and what make? I would like to know, if it is chemicals, mostly vitamins or is the soy organic.

The product is MediFast. Medifast is soy based. I lost a lot of weight on it but then was diagnosed with estrogen positive Breast cancer and gained all my weight back! Do you know if that include soy lecithin? I am soy allergic and I have had reactions to both spy oil and Soy Lecithin. Just this past week another one to Soy Lecithin in a bread that did not have it before but they now they added it to the bread recently.

Had a reaction a few months back when someone use a can of supposed canola oil spray and yup they also had started adding Soy Lecithin to it as well I get fairly severe reactions so all these manufactures using Soy Lecithin in everything they make is a real issue for me and others with severe Soy Allergies.

It may be worth looking into Hexane sensitivity if you have an allergy soy lecithin but not to whole soy. I traced my sinus pain, asthma reaction, and vertigo back to consuming soy lecithin years ago but would still ocassionally have reactions in spite of avoiding soy lecithin. Would you recommend a person with a history of thyroid disorder particularly thyroid nodules stay away from daily supplements that may contain soy lecithin?

In regards to whether it is safe to use soy lecithin if you have hypothyroidism. It should be safe. I would refer you to the following website. Thanks for the run down. I have an allergy to soy, such as tofu, edamame, soy milk. I have many other allergies and I know it depends on the amount and form of proteins — I have a severe reaction to some things raw, but once they are cooked beyond recognition I can tolerate them. So for almost Our body struggle to survive in nature because the nature is not specifically designed for us.

Better stats when comparing longevity, whether it be between our ancient brethren and us or across the last century years is to compare adult death rates, not general populations that include infants and the young. Childhood illness, accidents etc. Adult comparison from age 20 gives about the best comparisons of longevity across the ages. Using this measure, our grandparents actually did very well compared to us death rates and now. Cancer rates and heart disease in the adult set were very uncommon until the s when they began to rise dramatically, due to denuding of grains in processing another factors chemicals for one ; today, both heart disease and cancer rates are skyrocketing and a decline in longevity is happening.

The real boost in the last century to longevity were modern cleanliness, antibiotics and work related laws. Remember, survival depends on knowledge from the older generations, a vital link to past dangers. If few lived beyond age 30, it is unlikely our species would have survived. Namaste and care, mhikl. Well, nature was made for us to enjoy! Its as simple as Adam n Eve who sinned and did not listen to God.

Since then we all are born with sin and it has its effects on the mind evil people putting chemicals in our foods , as well as sins effect on the physical body sickness and age of dying. It comes down to your free will God gave you and how you use it. Believe what u want to believe, everyone has free speech, you said ur point of view about nature n man, n here is mine. Have a good day.! It is untrue because the Bible lets us know that Adam and Eve lived no longer then at most years ago.

There is nothing wrong with eating any way you prefer to if it makes you feel healthy, but please do not base it on the lie of evolution. Not only your physical health and well being are at stake here, but your eternal destiny. Out of place artifacts and other historical evidence suggest otherwise.

There is nothing wrong with eating like cave men. You say they all died young as if it was their diet that killed them, and that is a crock. Cave men and women died young because of exposure, accidents, animal attacks, insect bites, snake bites, drowning, bad weather, disease, and violence with other men and women……. In response to the person who asked why would we want to eat like cavemen as they died young, you have to remember, that cave people also had environmental threats on their lives.

For example, they could easily freeze to death, or be eaten by a larger animal. They could twist their ankle and be left behind by their tribe or clan because they were a burden. If food was scarce, they could starve to death.

The bottom line is, they did not have all the modern day diseases that we suffer from today because we eat the standard American diet SAD. Meaning that a lot of people died but not from cancer, heart disease or diabetes which are diet related!!!

Whether they died from hunger or cold at 2 years old or were eaten by a lion at 43 or injured themselves at 69 and bled out. What is the nature of your worry? By the way you should explore the Budwig diet on the astounding applications of the stuff. Even buying chicken and beef is hard these days bc animals are fed vegetarian diets containing soybeans to bulk them instead of hormone injections..

Even meat that says from grass fed cows still can contain soy bc they are given soybeans too is what a local farm representative told me. Long story but hopefully caught early.. Thx for all who research about soy and soy lecithin.. I try to not google much but when I saw the jelly beans I have for my kids and I love them too contains soy lecithin I was shocked and my husband said that product is in a lot of candy.

I will err on the side of staying away unless it is fermented. You do not stay need to stay away from flaxseed. It is about the healthiest thing you can eat combined with cottage cheese, neither the CC nor the Flax seed seed retain their original state but turn into a very healthy supplement. Please do check out the Budwig diet.

It is a miracle that has healed many of cancer and heart disease and diabetes. My daughter is allergic to soy and almost died due to the soy lecithin which was hidden on the ingredients list. Thank G-d she was close to a hospital where they were able to get an epi-shot into her. She MUST carry an epi-pen with her at all times. I am also a non-gmo freak and there is no way anyone can tell me the stuff is safe.

The myth, and that is what it is- a myth that soy is in someway bad for you is an unfortunate lie being told over and over again! Soy is nearly a perfect food, the phytoestrogen it contains is nothing like animal estrogens that have been linked to cancer. God gave us soy to eat, buy organic and eat to your hearts content! Or in your classification of organic? Or is it a myth that soy converts to MSG in the body? Yes, allergy to soy is a lie. Next time I am in the er in anaphylaxis I will just say to myself, walk it off.

Soy allergy is a lie. I am totally sure the blood allergy tests are a lie too. I am also allergic to nuts and eggs. My son is allergic to beef and pork, although just hives.

Unless you have had your airway almost swollen shut then you should really keep your uneducated opinion to yourself. Please check your information before posting. Soy especially GMO soy contains phytoestrogens which even though may be natural is not good for everyone. Estrogen driven cancers are worsened with phytoestrogens. Soy lecithin is poisonous to me.

Soy was good at one point, but in this case if you eat it raw it will kill you because its poisonous in its basic form. Fermented in low quantities has been OK for thousands of years in the Orient. But some idiot found that processing the Tard out of it was soo cheap the money was so easy to be made from it.

They paid for US to use it and enough paid out to look away from the bad side of it. What about soy lecithin and hypothyroidism? Is it a problem to have some in my organic acai breakfast smoothie. I bought protein powder and they say that it contains mg of soy lecithin per serving. I drink it twice a day so its mg. Is this to much? I am TTC and a acupuncture lady said no soy for me.

But its hard to find price decent protein powders with NO soy. Of all the protein powders I found this one has no soy and it tastes brilliant i think because all it has in it is whey. Kamila, I have never understood why anyone would use protein powders. Protein is so complex and is found in animal and plant sources when combined properly—if you are vegetarian.

Have you tried hemp protein? Hemp seed are a complete protein, which are easily digested, and if grown in Australia they are also organic. It is legal to purchase them in Australia and take them overseas to be consumed however it is illegal to eat them in Australia. They do not have the effects of marijuana.

I have a question. I was told by a midwife that if I take a soy lethicin supplement it will help me heal from ligament stretching in my pelvis. I was unable to walk for two months after the last baby I had and am now pregnant again.

Right now I avoid most soy in processed food unless it happens to be in chocolate or eggs in the wintertime feed. What can I do as I have been told that soy is bad. Your article is saying different and unfortunately I am just taking peoples word about soy because I am not a nutritionist. I do not want to harm the baby as it grows but also would like to avoid this pain after the birth too.

Hello Kim, If your midwife thinks lecithin is a good idea, you could try either sunflower or eggyolk lecithin. I had to use crutches and cried in pain everyday. Good luck and always heal yourself naturally xx. Our cultures have lost the ancient wisdoms handed down by mid-wives and natural healers. The accepted medical supporters today regurgitate what they have been taught, much of which is good, other stuff, not so much. Anything not accepted by Big Pharma and the bought medical system are tossed out as quackery.

My mum was killed by the med profession when in hospital when she was not allowed to bring in her magnesium supplements, so I speak from experience, and resentment. She was simply being assessed at the age of 74, in a hospital suite, for independent living. RiboCein is what we use to increase the natural production of intracellular glutathione and by increasing glutathione gsh inflammation goes down and pain disappears.

Usually allergies are a result of less than perfect immune system and this some times can be corrected. The benefits of increasing glutathione production are too many to list here but allergies gone could be one of them. What about lecithin supplements derived from sunflower seeds? Your article mentions various sources for lecithin, but discusses only soy-derived lecithin. I have a problem with soya and soya products. But what is the reason behind this?

The other 30 converts to MSG and describes a handful of negative effects all the way to liver failure… Article is http: By law lecithin sold in the US cannot contain more than 0. The internet is a wonderful thing anyone including me can write it and it becomes fact or truth. You CB are right about one thing: If they extract 70 percent protein from the soy then it is not 70 that stays in it. This extraction in the article par.

I take soy lecithin as a supplement because of the high phosphatidyl serine content. Should I stop taking it? My daughter suffered from severe eczema last year but now it is under control. I have however noticed that eating kinder chocolate or tunacks tea cake she breaks out in a nettle like rash and is very itchy, both these products contain soya leithcin. She is still young to get an allergy test but was wondering if she has a soya allergy? This is an important issue with women who have estrogen-positive breast cancer.

So now another safe way to deliver vitamin C is no longer safe? We were taking the new kind of delivery system by LiveOn Labs, of soy nanobubbles delivering dissolved C straight through the gut into the bloodstream. This is heartbreaking to me, because my cousin has this breast cancer and we both felt it was safe based on several articles and one medical study abstract, but she has developed new tumors in spite of doing everything she can to filter her water, give up processed foods, changing to organic toiletries, and in general reading all labels.

She is off the lipospheric C and now just takes the Ester C. Hello Tess, There is another very effective way to take vitamin C, dissolve the crystals in water with half as much baking soda and after it stops fizzing, drink.

Here is a video of Captain Randall the author of Forbidden Healing showing how: I have not seen this, but do wonder how the baking soda helps get it through the gut without breaking down the C.

I will certainly check this out. My husband and I also take the liposomal vitamin c though, we make our own and really like the way it works. I have often wondered whether or not the soy lecithin has an effect on my hormones. It seems when I take it my mood changes. We have, however, used sunflower lecithin as a substitute, but I am not sure that it works as well as soy lecithin. Anyway, just wanted to let you know that there are other lecithins on the market. After reading about the use of sunflower lecithin in dark chocolate, I am wondering if the amount of sunflower lecithin just needs to be changed in liposomal vitamin c.

Please take a look at the research ers associated with grassrootshealth net or carole baggerly. And check out vitamindcouncil org. Among its uses by different cells of the body: You body may or may not need it in different quantities eg, used up faster when fighting the flu, cancer, etc. A lot of recent US maladies have likely come from the advice of using sunscreen so much rather than get the minutes of midday UVB sunlight needed for health.

Some research even shows indoor workers with 3x rate of melanoma than those who work outside less UVB and higher UVA since in part windows filter out UVB so roll down window during the middle day for at least a few minutes if you can.

Please look at the research and try this natural.. It correlates low in people with many types of cancers. Sample Carole quote from skinnymom com: Very, very committed to pursuing primary prevention, especially through the active use of vitamin D.

I am not sure that is all you are doing, but you may want to read up on the Gerson Protocol and all other literature that promotes a healthy raw whole-foods diet to help with cancer. Mayo Clinic has a web site that sates no male child should ever be put on soy milk, due to estrogen content. Also, that any male still wishing to have children should avoid soy, as it will reduce testosterone levels. China and Japan have a long history of high soy consumption and they now have the highest populations.

Japan also had among the lowest breast cancer rates in the world until about a decade ago when the birth control pill was made legal. Ergo, it has not increased breast cancer rates in any noticeable way.

Can anyone comment about soy and infertility in men? Lecithin is a major ingredient in Sperm. There seems to be some information out there, that increasing intake of raw eggs or soy lecithin can really increase sperm volume. Would liver also help this? I guess it has Choline but not sure. Seems like the wise choice would be cage free, good diet, raw eggs in a smoothie perhaps. I mean Soybean oil with show up in a can of water based Tuna! Some Soy products have to be worse than others. Or using a healthy as i can find Stir Fry sauce.

Which is a really tough task. Their all mostly salty MSG crap! If anything, soy increases fertility. Only assumptions based on similarity to estrogren. High intake levels of soy and soy products have been shown to produce or add to your estrogen levels, lowering sperm count and T-levels lots of effects for men. Normal intake of soy is about 25 grams, but as I get older and my natural ability to produce T decreases, I have reduced the amount of soy intake.

For women an increased chance of breast and cervical cancer may exist with high levels of estrogen. Also bone density will decrease if the levels of T decreases. Just think of T levels being inversely proportional to estrogen levels as a rule of thumb.

No, I know both sides of the soy issue and choose to stay away unless it is fermented and then only in moderation. Soy formula was approved by WIC back in and now those women who were fed soy formula have thyroid issues.

Breast cancer rates are ever increasing and girls as young as 7 are starting their periods and developing breasts. Too much is unknown. Found the article on sugar very enlightening, thank you. Please explain to me if soy protein powder, which I have been taking for years as a supplement, is harmful to me. I assume it is not fermented. I am female aged 75 and I run and lift weights. Thank you Regards Carla. Even then in moderation. I too wonder who is paying Chris to pass out this mis-information.

This goes for Dr. Most times you can simply follow the money to their opinion. So from reading this it seams to me that men should do their best to not consume any soy products or flax seed? I would never consume anything soy especially if it is not Non GMO and or fermented. Get sunflower lecithin instead. If your child has food allergies ie: My guess is the soy foundation! Soy may not be dangerous for the body but most of it is made with seriously dangerous toxic for the soil, air, water and people living closed by, so for the sake of supporting a better environment, including the people living around, I strongly suggest we all get off soy totally.

Lecithin from sunflower, eggs, liver, pollen, etc. I am a food lover but always make sure what i am putting into my stomach before taking it. I had severe sinus infections for almost 6 years after living in a mold infested house.

I tried everything to get rid of them and eventually found one site that suggested Soy Lecithin might be connected to sinus inflammation. I cut it out and the sinus infections stopped.

My father[ageyr] under treatment for moderate to severe dementia of Alzheimer type with both drugs [ mamentine HCL in morning and Donep in night- each 10 mg. And they put it in infant formula. Hi Chris, the great dr Jensen highly recommended soy lecithin. Are you aware of the studies using flax seed that helped the body metabolize estrogen into the cancer protective metabolites? You stuck to facts and put things in perspective. An answer to that question could have been the most important part of your article.

I would like an answer to that, too. Elevated cholesterol and hypothyroid seem to go hand in hand. What can we do to lower our cholesterol? I found another source that said soy lecithin powder has had the estrogens and other toxic compounds removed but that the granulated form has soybean oil mixed with the powder and does contain some of these compounds. Is this enough to be concerned about, and why would they add soybean oil to the soy lecithin powder?

Soy Lecithin is now commonly used as a mixing emulsifier, especially with chocolate. I so wish Soy lecithin was taken out of everything and rated as a poison. I might one day be able to live here without being in fear of digesting Soy lecithin. I assume this would also apply to infant formula. Carolyn, from what I can glean, soy lecithin is much higher in phosphatides than sunflower lecithin. I believe the concerns of the soy source are overblown. According to Carlson Wade, author of Lecithin Book, What You Need to Know, published , the best lecithin is pure lecithin granules which contain over 95 percent phosphatides and about 2 percent soybean oil.

Soy formula sets your baby up for thryoid issues, breast cancer and for boys a low sperm count. All the formulas which is given to newborns as well come with soy lecithin as an emulsifier.

The two latest comments about soy lecithin are interesting but when mentioning sources of lecithin fail to mention sunflower lecithin: Lecithin has long been used as a health supplement. Here are some of the benefits: Actually, this article is a better source: I take soy lecithin daily. From day one, I noticed improvement in my short term memory.

I am worried a little about the estrogen effect but so far I have no problem. Hi just wanted to weigh in on soy. Being an RD I like to keep up to date with current research and recommendations. This is a great article that talks about soy and cancer risk, which many people are still very afraid of eating any soy, should alleviate some concerns. Soyfoods and Cancer http: I had so much good cholesterol the doc told me to keep doing whatever the hell I was doing.

I stopped taking it due to some research suggesting it would mishape blood cells, but im thinking low dose lecethin supplementation could be a good thing? Wish I could find a diet like Nutrisystem that used whey-based products and not soy. I am an estrogen-positive breast cancer survivor and am quite overweight, and due to back issues cannot exercise. If anyone is aware of a meals-delivered diet company that has a good concentration of soy-free products, please let me know!

I am desperate to get this weight off because I know my chances for survival are much better if I do. You should take a look at Soylent contrary to the name it is not a Soy based food.

It does contain a small amount of Soy Lecithin, but other than that it is primarily made up of Oats, Brown Rice, and Corn. Where do you live? Google and see if there are any companies near you that make fresh paleo meals weekly — these will not have any soy in them. And please know that all calories are not created equal! Eat whole foods, cut out all the processed junk to include soda- diet and regular , and get rid of grains and that will help you get rid of the weight!

Like a couple of other posts I am a breastfeeding mother who is having issues with recurrent blocked milk ducts. Lecithin supplements are recommended to prevent clogged ducts but the advised dosage is mg daily.

Would you be able to offer any advice? I tried skimming through all these comments, FIRST, to see if my question was addressed, but I did not see it — so please forgive me if it was discussed already. What can you, Mr. Kresser tell me about this — and would you please respond to my e-mail? I am very allergic to soy, with a very specific reaction that differs from my other allergies. It has been difficult to find the soy in my diet recently. After looking up one of the E ingredients E , I found that it is lecithin, and most likely soy.

I am certain that this is the source of my recent problems. It angers me to see sources saying that soy lecithin and soy oil do not affect people with soy allergy.

It is also frustrating that most milk products are having soy added to them canned milk and powdered milk. I drink fresh milk, but I like to use stronger milk as a sweetener. Even makeups are switching ingredients to soy. I all of a sudden have a reaction, and find they have changed their formulae. I have contacted several companies, but unless other people do to, it feels hopeless that things will get safer. Watch what you eat, most animals fed Soy lecithin, have it in their meat and eggs.

I can only eat one egg a day, anymore and I get Soy lecithin sickness. Chris where are your federal based evidence data in this sory? And China bans direct consumption of GM soy. Although outside the scope of this article, which is health focused, I wanted mention that some people like me avoid soy for policial reasons.

There is over production of GMO soy in this country and it is ruining our biodiveristy and putting small farmers organic and non out of business. Kresser has written about before???? It is not an allergy. I was given two boxes of wonderful sounding tea for Christmas…but with soy lecithin…. Do I avoid them to be safe, or can I enjoy them guilt free? Anyone with thyroid issues should avoid all soy products. You also say, that products have so little amount in them. Please clarify, Thank you.

Forget about what the studies so far are telling us, but in terms of the actual compounds or processes themselves, most of them hold some sort of potential health risk. You say it yourself, soy lecithin appears in all kinds of foods, I know, because I am going out of my way to avoid it, a job which calls for huge determination! I think it is important for spokespeople, representing medical science and industry, to keep in mind that not everyman thralls through the ingredient list to look and see if there are potentially contents that calls for further research before consumption.

After reading all the info I wonder if it is worth the risk since I also have high blood pressure. In fact my oncologist is not freaked out about soy at all really. She said in moderation is fine. Is soy lecithin dangerous for breast cancer survivors? I keep getting mixed information. My cousin was taking the lipsomal C which is made with non GMO soy lecithin.

We talked My Sunflower Oil into making lecithin granules so we could make it at home, but even sunflowers have phytoestrogens. Someone needs to find out the truth about this. No articles or studies out there agree on this issue. Just want to say that after having severe hives for suddenly for several years I have finally narrowed it down to happening when I eat foods that have soy lecithin. Everything from cheese, chocolate, red vine candy to all kinds of frozen foods….

I generally avoid soy as much as possible except for the small amounts of raw fermented organic soy sauce and soy lecithin in some chocolates.

However, I do eat about tablespoons of whole flax seeds per day. I read somewhere that only ground flax seeds have estrogenic effect on the body and that whole flax seeds are ok to consume.

And, what about chia seeds? Do they contain phytoestrogens as well? I am a breastfeeding mama and recently had several clogged ducts. I was told to take a tablespoon of soy lecithin a day because it thins out the milk without lessening its quality so that its easier to loosen the plug. I took it because I was doing everything possible to avoid mastitis and having to take antibiotics. Not sure if it made a huge difference but I was able to unclog the ducts and not get an infection.

Any idea why it would thin breastmilk? Would you disagree with that? Soy issues are often allergies. It is great that you obviously have no allergies to soy.

If you want more sweetness, add a couple of drops of stevia liquid. Easy to remove by pressing a sharp knife down the side. It usually pops up. Sometimes I need to run hot water on the inverted cup for a few seconds; then it pops out. The article is good but does not provide the meat that I was looking for.

If you decide to dig more into it, here are the comments. Soy lecithin, apart from additives, I think it can be a very good supplement for brain function, if and ONLY if, the phospholipids in the lecthin piece are untouched and not getting modified in some way in the chemical process. Then what amount of phytoestrogens do these lecithin blends contain.

Is there any limit? Is there any source to find which supplement not additive contain what amount of phytoestrogens? When the supplements mention, like phosphatidylcholine or Phosphatidylserine, is sourced from Soy lecithin, mg of lecithin contains mg of the above stuff, then what is rest mg?

Is there any way that you can find this information apart from the manufacturer. Supplement market is not regulated by the FDA but it should by some body , so they can make all wild claims that they like but they do not suffer from it. What is the difference between Soy lecithin and Sunflower lecithin, for example? I think, I will stop for time being. Like the way you write your articles though, with scientific proofs but just avoid Life Extension articles style, where they cherry pick their references.

Sorry Aysin but that article did not show why the Japanese live longer than anyone else…… they regularly consume soy…. I had never before heard of soy lecithin. I think the main point here is that the food industry uses too many chemicals and additives in general. We need to eat natural foods like we were meant to! For all of the people that love chocolate and worry about the ingredients, you should learn how to make your own.

Thanks for this informative, balanced information! I really appreciate your level-headed approach to foods that others in the alternative health community might just blindly condemn. However, I believe constant, irrational food paranoia is almost certainly a major stressor to the body. Hey Chris, just a quick note about gluten-free, cane sugar, and soy-free chocolates: I consume flaxseed for its phytoestrogens and avoid soy for its phytoestrogens, because they are different.

On the other hand soy phytoestrogens make an estrogenic effect in body. I felt like Chris was making a different point about it, maybe someone can explain what was implied more detailed. Please explain if what I do may be bad. There is no evidence of hominins in America, Australia, or almost anywhere in Oceania during this time period.

Fates of these early colonists, and their relationships to modern humans, are still subject to debate. According to current archaeological and genetic models, there were at least two notable expansion events subsequent to peopling of Eurasia c.

In the Middle Paleolithic, Neanderthals were present in the region now occupied by Poland. Both Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis became extinct by the end of the Paleolithic. Descended from Homo Sapiens , the anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens emerged in eastern Africa c. Multiple hominid groups coexisted for some time in certain locations.

Homo neanderthalensis were still found in parts of Eurasia c. DNA studies also suggest an unknown degree of interbreeding between Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo sapiens denisova. Hominin fossils not belonging either to Homo neanderthalensis or to Homo sapiens species, found in the Altai Mountains and Indonesia, were radiocarbon dated to c. For the duration of the Paleolithic, human populations remained low, especially outside the equatorial region.

Paleolithic humans made tools of stone, bone, and wood. Excavations in Gona, Ethiopia have produced thousands of artifacts, and through radioisotopic dating and magnetostratigraphy , the sites can be firmly dated to 2.

Evidence shows these early hominins intentionally selected raw materials with good flaking qualities and chose appropriate sized stones for their needs to produce sharp-edged tools for cutting. The earliest Paleolithic stone tool industry, the Oldowan , began around 2. It was completely replaced around , years ago by the more complex Acheulean industry, which was first conceived by Homo ergaster around 1.

Lower Paleolithic humans used a variety of stone tools, including hand axes and choppers. Although they appear to have used hand axes often, there is disagreement about their use. Interpretations range from cutting and chopping tools, to digging implements, to flaking cores, to the use in traps, and as a purely ritual significance, perhaps in courting behavior.

Calvin has suggested that some hand axes could have served as "killer Frisbees " meant to be thrown at a herd of animals at a waterhole so as to stun one of them.

There are no indications of hafting , and some artifacts are far too large for that. Thus, a thrown hand axe would not usually have penetrated deeply enough to cause very serious injuries. Nevertheless, it could have been an effective weapon for defense against predators. Choppers and scrapers were likely used for skinning and butchering scavenged animals and sharp-ended sticks were often obtained for digging up edible roots. Fire was used by the Lower Paleolithic hominins Homo erectus and Homo ergaster as early as , to 1.

The Lower Paleolithic Homo erectus possibly invented rafts c. However, this hypothesis is disputed within the anthropological community. In addition to improving tool making methods, the Middle Paleolithic also saw an improvement of the tools themselves that allowed access to a wider variety and amount of food sources. Harpoons were invented and used for the first time during the late Middle Paleolithic c. During the Upper Paleolithic , further inventions were made, such as the net c.

Archaeological evidence from the Dordogne region of France demonstrates that members of the European early Upper Paleolithic culture known as the Aurignacian used calendars c. This was a lunar calendar that was used to document the phases of the moon.

Genuine solar calendars did not appear until the Neolithic. The social organization of the earliest Paleolithic Lower Paleolithic societies remains largely unknown to scientists, though Lower Paleolithic hominins such as Homo habilis and Homo erectus are likely to have had more complex social structures than chimpanzee societies.

Similarly, scientists disagree whether Lower Paleolithic humans were largely monogamous or polygynous. Human societies from the Paleolithic to the early Neolithic farming tribes lived without states and organized governments.

For most of the Lower Paleolithic, human societies were possibly more hierarchical than their Middle and Upper Paleolithic descendants, and probably were not grouped into bands , [50] though during the end of the Lower Paleolithic, the latest populations of the hominin Homo erectus may have begun living in small-scale possibly egalitarian bands similar to both Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies and modern hunter-gatherers. Middle Paleolithic societies, unlike Lower Paleolithic and early Neolithic ones, consisted of bands that ranged from 20—30 or 25— members and were usually nomadic.

Bands sometimes joined together into larger "macrobands" for activities such as acquiring mates and celebrations or where resources were abundant.

Much evidence exists that humans took part in long-distance trade between bands for rare commodities such as ochre , which was often used for religious purposes such as ritual [51] [52] and raw materials, as early as , years ago in Middle Paleolithic. Some sources claim that most Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies were possibly fundamentally egalitarian [3] [22] [38] [53] and may have rarely or never engaged in organized violence between groups i.

Like contemporary egalitarian hunter-gatherers such as the Mbuti pygmies, societies may have made decisions by communal consensus decision making rather than by appointing permanent rulers such as chiefs and monarchs.

Each member of the group was skilled at all tasks essential to survival, regardless of individual abilities. Theories to explain the apparent egalitarianism have arisen, notably the Marxist concept of primitive communism. Kelly speculates that the relative peacefulness of Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies resulted from a low population density, cooperative relationships between groups such as reciprocal exchange of commodities and collaboration on hunting expeditions, and because the invention of projectile weapons such as throwing spears provided less incentive for war, because they increased the damage done to the attacker and decreased the relative amount of territory attackers could gain.

Anthropologists have typically assumed that in Paleolithic societies, women were responsible for gathering wild plants and firewood, and men were responsible for hunting and scavenging dead animals. Men may have participated in gathering plants, firewood and insects, and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals such as woolly mammoths and deer off cliffs.

Early examples of artistic expression, such as the Venus of Tan-Tan and the patterns found on elephant bones from Bilzingsleben in Thuringia , may have been produced by Acheulean tool users such as Homo erectus prior to the start of the Middle Paleolithic period. Lower Paleolithic Acheulean tool users, according to Robert G.

They decorated themselves with beads and collected exotic stones for aesthetic, rather than utilitarian qualities. Fallio interprets Lower and Middle Paleolithic marking on rocks at sites such as Bilzingsleben such as zigzagging lines as accounts or representations of altered states of consciousness [73] though some other scholars interpret them as either simple doodling or as the result of natural processes.

Upper Paleolithic humans produced works of art such as cave paintings, Venus figurines, animal carvings, and rock paintings. The earliest explanation, by the prehistorian Abbe Breuil , interpreted the paintings as a form of magic designed to ensure a successful hunt.

The anthropologist David Lewis-Williams has suggested that Paleolithic cave paintings were indications of shamanistic practices, because the paintings of half-human, half-animal paintings and the remoteness of the caves are reminiscent of modern hunter-gatherer shamanistic practices. Archaeologists and anthropologists have described the figurines as representations of goddesses , pornographic imagery, apotropaic amulets used for sympathetic magic, and even as self-portraits of women themselves.

Dale Guthrie [78] has studied not only the most artistic and publicized paintings, but also a variety of lower-quality art and figurines, and he identifies a wide range of skill and ages among the artists. He also points out that the main themes in the paintings and other artifacts powerful beasts, risky hunting scenes and the over-sexual representation of women are to be expected in the fantasies of adolescent males during the Upper Paleolithic. The "Venus" figurines have been theorized, not universally, as representing a mother goddess ; the abundance of such female imagery has inspired the theory that Paleolithic and later Neolithic societies centered their religion and societies around women.

Dale Gutrie's hypothesis that served as "stone age pornography ". The origins of music during the Paleolithic are unknown. This early music would not have left an archaeological footprint. Music may have developed from rhythmic sounds produced by daily chores, for example, cracking open nuts with stones. Maintaining a rhythm while working may have helped people to become more efficient at daily activities.

Bird and other animal species produce music such as calls to attract mates. Another explanation is that humans began to make music simply because it pleased them.

Upper Paleolithic and possibly Middle Paleolithic [83] humans used flute -like bone pipes as musical instruments, [38] [84] and music may have played a large role in the religious lives of Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers. As with modern hunter-gatherer societies, music may have been used in ritual or to help induce trances.

In particular, it appears that animal skin drums may have been used in religious events by Upper Paleolithic shamans, as shown by the remains of drum-like instruments from some Upper Paleolithic graves of shamans and the ethnographic record of contemporary hunter-gatherer shamanic and ritual practices. According to James B. Harrod humankind first developed religious and spiritual beliefs during the Middle Paleolithic or Upper Paleolithic. Fallio, have recently proposed that religion and spirituality and art may have first arisen in Pre-Paleolithic chimpanzees [86] or Early Lower Paleolithic Oldowan societies.

Middle Paleolithic humans' use of burials at sites such as Krapina , Croatia c. According to recent archaeological findings from Homo heidelbergensis sites in Atapuerca , humans may have begun burying their dead much earlier, during the late Lower Paleolithic ; but this theory is widely questioned in the scientific community.

Likewise, some scientists have proposed that Middle Paleolithic societies such as Neanderthal societies may also have practiced the earliest form of totemism or animal worship , in addition to their presumably religious burial of the dead. In particular, Emil Bächler suggested based on archaeological evidence from Middle Paleolithic caves that a bear cult was widespread among Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals.

The existence of anthropomorphic images and half-human, half-animal images in the Upper Paleolithic may further indicate that Upper Paleolithic humans were the first people to believe in a pantheon of gods or supernatural beings , [91] though such images may instead indicate shamanistic practices similar to those of contemporary tribal societies. Fallio writes that ancestor cults first emerged in complex Upper Paleolithic societies. Men on the other hand, end up having to deal with a lot of fat deposited in their bellies.

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