Hello Lori, Thank you so much for your review. Quality protein uptake is defined as the ratio of essential amino acids to daily dietary protein. Sports and activities that encourage flexibility are easy to find. No, you cannot pound them back, but I am not sure why you would want to anyway. Leave this field empty. I mastered more new things on this fat reduction issue. We've had out of town company and been to many family gatherings, where I used to overeat.
The widespread availability of nutritional guidelines  has done little to address the problems of overeating and poor dietary choice. Most of this extra food energy came from an increase in carbohydrate consumption rather than fat consumption.
As societies become increasingly reliant on energy-dense , big-portions, and fast-food meals, the association between fast-food consumption and obesity becomes more concerning. Agricultural policy and techniques in the United States and Europe have led to lower food prices. In the United States, subsidization of corn, soy, wheat, and rice through the U.
Obese people consistently under-report their food consumption as compared to people of normal weight. A sedentary lifestyle plays a significant role in obesity. The World Health Organization indicates people worldwide are taking up less active recreational pursuits, while a study from Finland  found an increase and a study from the United States found leisure-time physical activity has not changed significantly.
In both children and adults, there is an association between television viewing time and the risk of obesity. Like many other medical conditions, obesity is the result of an interplay between genetic and environmental factors.
As of , more than 41 of these sites on the human genome have been linked to the development of obesity when a favorable environment is present. The term "non-syndromic obesity" is sometimes used to exclude these conditions. The thrifty gene hypothesis postulates that, due to dietary scarcity during human evolution, people are prone to obesity.
Their ability to take advantage of rare periods of abundance by storing energy as fat would be advantageous during times of varying food availability, and individuals with greater adipose reserves would be more likely to survive famine.
This tendency to store fat, however, would be maladaptive in societies with stable food supplies. Certain physical and mental illnesses and the pharmaceutical substances used to treat them can increase risk of obesity. Medical illnesses that increase obesity risk include several rare genetic syndromes listed above as well as some congenital or acquired conditions: Certain medications may cause weight gain or changes in body composition ; these include insulin , sulfonylureas , thiazolidinediones , atypical antipsychotics , antidepressants , steroids , certain anticonvulsants phenytoin and valproate , pizotifen , and some forms of hormonal contraception.
While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. There are a number of theories as to the cause but most believe it is a combination of various factors. The correlation between social class and BMI varies globally. A review in found that in developed countries women of a high social class were less likely to be obese. No significant differences were seen among men of different social classes.
In the developing world, women, men, and children from high social classes had greater rates of obesity. The decrease in strength of correlation was felt to be due to the effects of globalization. A similar relationship is seen among US states: Many explanations have been put forth for associations between BMI and social class.
It is thought that in developed countries, the wealthy are able to afford more nutritious food, they are under greater social pressure to remain slim, and have more opportunities along with greater expectations for physical fitness.
In undeveloped countries the ability to afford food, high energy expenditure with physical labor, and cultural values favoring a larger body size are believed to contribute to the observed patterns. A correlation in BMI changes over time has been found among friends, siblings, and spouses. Smoking has a significant effect on an individual's weight.
Those who quit smoking gain an average of 4. In the United States the number of children a person has is related to their risk of obesity. In the developing world urbanization is playing a role in increasing rate of obesity. Malnutrition in early life is believed to play a role in the rising rates of obesity in the developing world. Consistent with cognitive epidemiological data, numerous studies confirm that obesity is associated with cognitive deficits.
The study of the effect of infectious agents on metabolism is still in its early stages. Gut flora has been shown to differ between lean and obese humans. There is an indication that gut flora in obese and lean individuals can affect the metabolic potential.
This apparent alteration of the metabolic potential is believed to confer a greater capacity to harvest energy contributing to obesity. Whether these differences are the direct cause or the result of obesity has yet to be determined unequivocally. An association between viruses and obesity has been found in humans and several different animal species.
The amount that these associations may have contributed to the rising rate of obesity is yet to be determined. Certain aspects of personality are associated with being obese.
There are many possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of obesity. In particular, they and other appetite-related hormones act on the hypothalamus , a region of the brain central to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure.
There are several circuits within the hypothalamus that contribute to its role in integrating appetite, the melanocortin pathway being the most well understood. The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons. Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Thus a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to overfeeding and may account for some genetic and acquired forms of obesity.
The World Health Organization WHO predicts that overweight and obesity may soon replace more traditional public health concerns such as undernutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant cause of poor health. Solutions look at changing the factors that cause excess food energy consumption and inhibit physical activity. Efforts include federally reimbursed meal programs in schools, limiting direct junk food marketing to children,  and decreasing access to sugar-sweetened beverages in schools.
Many organizations have published reports pertaining to obesity. This is a comprehensive evidence-based guideline to address the management and prevention of overweight and obesity in adults and children. Comprehensive approaches are being looked at to address the rising rates of obesity. The Obesity Policy Action OPA framework divides measure into 'upstream' policies, 'midstream' policies, 'downstream' policies.
The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. In the short-term low carbohydrate diets appear better than low fat diets for weight loss. Five medications have evidence for long-term use orlistat , lorcaserin , liraglutide , phentermine—topiramate , and naltrexone—bupropion.
The most effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery. In earlier historical periods obesity was rare, and achievable only by a small elite, although already recognised as a problem for health. But as prosperity increased in the Early Modern period , it affected increasingly larger groups of the population.
In the WHO formally recognized obesity as a global epidemic. Once considered a problem only of high-income countries, obesity rates are rising worldwide and affecting both the developed and developing world. Obesity is from the Latin obesitas , which means "stout, fat, or plump". Ancient Greek medicine recognizes obesity as a medical disorder, and records that the Ancient Egyptians saw it in the same way.
It was common among high officials in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance  as well as in Ancient East Asian civilizations. With the onset of the Industrial Revolution it was realized that the military and economic might of nations were dependent on both the body size and strength of their soldiers and workers. During the 20th century, as populations reached their genetic potential for height, weight began increasing much more than height, resulting in obesity.
Many cultures throughout history have viewed obesity as the result of a character flaw. The obesus or fat character in Ancient Greek comedy was a glutton and figure of mockery. During Christian times the food was viewed as a gateway to the sins of sloth and lust. People of all ages can face social stigmatization, and may be targeted by bullies or shunned by their peers. The weight that is viewed as an ideal has become lower since the s.
In Britain, the weight at which people considered themselves to be overweight was significantly higher in than in Obesity is still seen as a sign of wealth and well-being in many parts of Africa. This has become particularly common since the HIV epidemic began. Some attribute the Venus figurines to the tendency to emphasize fertility while others feel they represent "fatness" in the people of the time.
This continued through much of Christian European history, with only those of low socioeconomic status being depicted as obese. These women, however, still maintained the "hourglass" shape with its relationship to fertility. After centuries of obesity being synonymous with wealth and social status, slimness began to be seen as the desirable standard. In addition to its health impacts, obesity leads to many problems including disadvantages in employment   and increased business costs.
These effects are felt by all levels of society from individuals, to corporations, to governments. Obesity prevention programs have been found to reduce the cost of treating obesity-related disease. However, the longer people live, the more medical costs they incur. Researchers, therefore, conclude that reducing obesity may improve the public's health, but it is unlikely to reduce overall health spending. Obesity can lead to social stigmatization and disadvantages in employment.
The most common injuries in this group were due to falls and lifting, thus affecting the lower extremities, wrists or hands, and backs. Some research shows that obese people are less likely to be hired for a job and are less likely to be promoted. Specific industries, such as the airline, healthcare and food industries, have special concerns.
Due to rising rates of obesity, airlines face higher fuel costs and pressures to increase seating width. With the American Medical Association 's classification of obesity as a chronic disease,  it is thought that health insurance companies will more likely pay for obesity treatment, counseling and surgery, and the cost of research and development of fat treatment pills or gene therapy treatments should be more affordable if insurers help to subsidize their cost.
In , The European Court of Justice ruled that morbid obesity is a disability. The Court said that if an employee's obesity prevents him from "full and effective participation of that person in professional life on an equal basis with other workers", then it shall be considered a disability and that firing someone on such grounds is discriminatory.
The principal goal of the fat acceptance movement is to decrease discrimination against people who are overweight and obese. A number of organizations exist that promote the acceptance of obesity.
It has more of a global orientation and describes its mission as promoting size acceptance and helping to end weight-based discrimination.
The American legal system, however, has decided that the potential public health costs exceed the benefits of extending this anti-discrimination law to cover obesity.
In the New York Times published an article on the Global Energy Balance Network , a nonprofit founded in that advocated for people to focus on increasing exercise rather than reducing calorie intake to avoid obesity and to be healthy.
Hand and Steven N. The healthy BMI range varies with the age and sex of the child. As with obesity in adults, many factors contribute to the rising rates of childhood obesity.
Changing diet and decreasing physical activity are believed to be the two most important causes for the recent increase in the incidence of child obesity. Obesity in pets is common in many countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The committee will meet prior to the internship meeting to discuss the appeals and make a recommendation to the Department Chair.
Students who are denied appeals must attend the internship meeting and complete the internship. Students seeking the B. The courses listed below satisfy both degree requirements and Core Curriculum requirements. If courses are taken to satisfy both degree requirements and Core Curriculum requirements, then students may need to take additional courses in order to meet the minimum number of semester credit hours required for this degree.
Students must complete one of the following courses, for a total of 3 semester credit hours:. Students must complete two of the following courses, for a total of 6 semester credit hours:. Students must complete either one of the following courses or any additional Core Curriculum course not previously used to satisfy a core component area requirement, for a total of 3 semester credit hours:. All candidates for the degree must complete the following degree requirements in addition to the Core Curriculum requirements.
Students pursuing the B. The Bachelor of Science B. The degree requirements consist of the University Core Curriculum, major core requirements, elective courses in areas of specializations, a foreign language, and an internship. The major core is multidisciplinary introducing students to the fundamental subjects and the essential knowledge necessary for working in any field related to public health.
The elective courses allow students to concentrate in one of the areas of specialization. The degree program prepares students for health care related careers in government, private, and nonprofit organizations.
In addition, graduates of this program will be competent in pursuing graduate studies in a variety of academic fields, including public health, allied health, public policy, nutrition, business, and law.
It can also provide students with a pathway to advanced studies in medicine or dentistry, if the students use the electives to fulfill the additional admission requirements for medical and dental schools.
The degree program is offered in two concentrations: The minimum number of semester credit hours required for this degree, including Core Curriculum requirements, is Thirty-nine of the total semester credit hours required for the degree must be at the upper-division level. All Public Health majors are expected to complete an internship 6 semester credit hours, hours of time on site. The courses listed below satisfy both degree requirements and Core Curriculum requirements; however, if these courses are taken to satisfy both requirements, then students may need to take additional courses in order to meet the minimum number of semester credit hours required for this degree.
All candidates for the B. This course sequence guide is designed to assist students in completing the requirements for their UTSA undergraduate Public Health degree with a concentration in Health Promotion and Behavioral Science. This is merely a guide and students must satisfy other requirements of this catalog and meet with their academic advisor for individualized degree plans.
Progress within this guide depends upon such factors as course availability, individual student academic preparation, student time management, work obligations, and individual financial considerations. Students may choose to take courses during Summer terms to reduce course loads during long semesters.
The student will graduate with a baccalaureate degree in health or public health while earning a certificate in public health from UTHealth Houston SPH. Additionally, they will have the opportunity to complete a Master of Public Health MPH degree program in one additional year instead of the customary two years.
Graduates will be expected to acquire the education, skill-set and experience needed to enter the professional work force in any of the varied fields of public health, or be well prepared to continue with their education through doctoral studies or in professional degrees such as medicine, dentistry and pharmacy. Students in good standing in the Bachelor of Science in Health or the Bachelor of Science in Public Health program who have a minimum cumulative grade point average of a 3.
This coursework will simultaneously satisfy remaining undergraduate requirements, as well as the core courses for the Master of Public Health MPH degree. After satisfying the undergraduate degree requirements students will then apply for and finish the graduate program. Students may apply for admission into one of the concentrations within the Kinesiology major if they wish to specialize in athletic training, exercise physiology, kinesiology and health science, or physical education. Students may also pursue the major without a concentration.
This also applies to students who are unable to complete one of the concentrations. Academic advising for students seeking the Kinesiology degree is available in the Life and Health Sciences Advising Center. Students who wish to pursue teacher certification will be advised in the Interdisciplinary Education Advising Center. The minimum number of semester credit hours for this degree, including the Core Curriculum requirements, is , of which at least 39 must be at the upper-division level.
Experiential learning is a valuable element for kinesiology professionals. The internship is a time-limited, supervised period of kinesiology activities carried out in a kinesiology-oriented organization. An internship is optional for the students in the Kinesiology major with no concentration. Students must have the background check completed and accepted by the internship site when the work plan for the internship site when the work plan for the internship is submitted.
Students in the Kinesiology major are required to successfully complete all required KIN courses, and select elective courses based on their post-graduate goals. Students become eligible to apply for the Texas state licensure upon completion of this concentration. Students must be accepted into the Athletic Training Apprenticeship Program to pursue this concentration.
The apprenticeship program involves hours of clinical internship over a minimum of five semesters. All kinesiology degree core and support work must be completed with a grade of "C-" or better. The goal of admission requirements for the Athletic Training concentration is to provide undergraduate students with a program of study with the highest possible standards. To achieve this goal, the admission policy is designed to identify those students most likely to succeed in athletic training.
All applicants for admission to the Athletic Training concentration will be initially admitted to the Kinesiology program without a concentration. In order for a student to declare the Athletic Training concentration, a student must be admitted to the Athletic Training Apprenticeship Program, and meet the following academic criteria.
To declare an Athletic Training concentration, a Kinesiology major must have:. For a complete listing of courses that satisfy the Core Curriculum requirements, see Core Curriculum Component Area Requirements above.
Students in the Athletic Training concentration are required to successfully complete all required HTH and KIN courses, and select designated elective courses based on their post-graduate goals. Students are trained for careers in exercise science. To achieve this goal, the admission policy is designed to identify those students most likely to succeed in kinesiology education.
Academic performance for declaration of the Exercise Physiology concentration will be evaluated after the following criteria has been met:. Kinesiology majors with Exercise Physiology concentration are eligible to apply for an internship if they:. Prior work experience is defined as an experience that is at least equivalent to what students will earn in a hour internship. Both the length and quality of the experience will be evaluated.
This concentration is suited for students who are taking prerequisite courses for medical schools or graduate programs in health professions e. Students who are interested in applying to these programs are encouraged to meet with their academic advisor and consult with the UTSA Health Professions Office. The goal of admission requirements for the Kinesiology and Health Science concentration is to provide undergraduate students with a program of study with the highest possible standards.
All applicants for admission to the Kinesiology and Health Science concentration will be initially admitted to the Kinesiology program without a concentration. In order for a student to declare the Kinesiology and Health Science concentration must meet the following academic criteria. To declare an Kinesiology and Health Science concentration, a Kinesiology major must have:.
An internship is optional for the students in the Kinesiology major with a concentration in Kinesiology and Health Science. Students in the Kinesiology and Health Science concentration are required to successfully complete all required KIN courses, and select designated elective courses based on their post-graduate goals. Students are prepared for careers in teaching physical education pre-kindergarten—grade Academic advising for students seeking the Kinesiology degree is available in the Interdisciplinary Education Advising Center.
These courses require an advisor code and are restricted to students who have applied and been accepted into the Teacher Certification Program. All the courses listed for the Physical Education Concentration 84 hours are required for teacher certification in physical education. Only the courses marked with an asterisk are restricted and require an advisor code and acceptance into the Teacher Certification Program. Advisor codes for these classes will be issued only if all prerequisites have been completed.
Didactic and introductory supervised experiences are part of the curriculum and serve as a foundation for the Master of Dietetics Studies MDS. Students must meet all admission requirements to seek the dual B. Successful completion of both degrees certifies the student as eligible to take the national exam to become a Registered Dietitian RD.
Students admitted into the undergraduate program are not guaranteed placement into the MDS unless they maintain a 3. Students on the B. Some of the requirements are known to be a good predictor of achievement in the graduate professional phase of the Coordinated Program in Dietetics. Admission into the major as part of a cohort group occurs in the Fall Semester. In order to declare a major in Nutrition and Dietetics, a student must meet the following criteria:.
Transfer students must meet all the above criteria and meet all the UTSA undergraduate admission requirements. Official transcripts from all institutions attended must be submitted. A criminal background check is required during the semesters in which a student enrolls in field-based practicums. Students will be required to complete a Criminal Record Check for practicums associated with schools, healthcare facilities, hospitals and clinics. It is the responsibility of the student to determine if his or her criminal history background will present a problem before applying for admission to the program.
Students with problematic criminal history will not be able to complete most of the field experiences that are required by the program. This course sequence guide is designed to assist students in completing their UTSA undergraduate degree requirements that are part of the Coordinated Program in Dietetics.
This is merely a guide and students must satisfy other admission requirements for the Coordinated Program in Dietetics; and meet with their advisor for individualized degree plans. Students may choose to take core and support courses during Summer terms to reduce course loads during long semesters. Courses in the Nutrition and Dietetics Program are only offered once a year, according to the guide below. The practicum courses involve traveling off campus to affiliation sites. Check the University Schedule of Classes or with the instructor to plan the rest of the course schedule accordingly.
All students pursuing the Minor in Community Health must complete the following 18 semester credit hours:. All students pursuing the Minor in Wellness must complete the following 18 semester credit hours:. To declare a Minor in Community Health or Wellness or to obtain advice, students should consult their academic advisor.
All students pursuing a Certificate in Athletic Coaching must complete the following 15 semester credit hours:. This course is designed to provide teacher certification students with the opportunity to gain developmentally appropriate knowledge and skills in health and environmental safety. It will address health-related issues in personal, interpersonal, and community settings and creating a safe teaching environment.
Offered Spring Semester only. Introduction to Community and Public Health. This course is a survey of the profession of public health and the competencies required of health educators, including examination of philosophies, ethics and current trends.
This course serves as a foundation for other courses in the health degree. Emphasizes the concept of mind, body, and spirit as necessary components of total well-being; principles of preventive health; and self-responsibility for personal health behaviors. This course introduces students to practices and skills that are commonly used in community health and preventive health services.
These include health screening skills and skills for communicating and interpreting screening results. The course offers hands-on practice of these skills. Database Management in Community and Public Health. This course will focus on practical issues in database management. Students will learn how to perform basic query and reporting operations, migrate data between various file formats, share data using cloud data management systems such as Dropbox, prepare data for statistical analysis, conduct statistical analyses common in community and public health, perform data quality control and assurance procedures and develop formal documents for reporting outcomes.
Survey of Drugs and Health. Study of the use and abuse of drugs and other substances. Examines addiction, dependence, tolerance, motivation for use, and effects of substance abuse on health and society. Survey of Human Nutrition. An overview approach to understanding the principles of nutrition and their effect on health and fitness. Emphasis on major nutritional issues throughout the human life cycle; self-evaluation of diet and fitness habits.
Survey of Human Sexuality. A study examining the breadth of human sexuality, including psychosocial, cultural and physical aspects, and its impact on our lives. Principles of Weight Management. An in-depth study of the field of prevention and management of obesity. This course provides practical application of nutritional, psychological, and physical activity principles that help individuals manage their own weight and is suitable for students in health, kinesiology, psychology, biology, counseling, or others.
A noncompetitive, monitored activity component is required. Physical Activity and Health. The course provides a survey of the health-related effects and social-cultural and behavioral determinants of physical activity and exercise.
Theories of Health Behavior. Designed to provide an overview of health behavior theories, program planning models and multi-level interventions typically used in public health. Each level of the socio-ecological model will be discussed including individual, interpersonal, organization, community and policy.
Directed field experience is required. Formerly titled "Foundations of Health Theory. Study of community health problems and the function and organization of public, private, and voluntary health agencies, application of health theories and models and program planning methods.
Offered Fall Semester only. Organization, administration, and supervision of health programs in the community, school, business, or industry setting. Application of health theories, models and program planning methods is required.
Application of theories and models for program development, implementation and evaluation. Health majors and minors only. Physical, social, and psychological development throughout the lifespan. Implications for health professionals at all stages of development prenatal to death are addressed. Practical application of techniques for shaping healthier emotional behavior; emphasis on personality, stress management, and fulfilling relationships.
Child and Adolescent Health Promotion. Designed for students who are interested in promoting the health of youth, as well as those students pursuing academic training in education and community health. The primary goal of this course is to improve the health literacy of teachers and health promotion specialists through understanding and application of evidence-based child and adolescent health promotion concepts.
Program Planning and Evaluation. This course provides students with a basic understanding of planning, implementing, and evaluating health promotion programs in a variety of settings, including worksite, healthcare, and community and at a various levels individual, organization, community, policy.
Human Disease and Epidemiology. An in-depth look at the etiology, prevention, and treatment of chronic and contagious diseases afflicting humans and epidemiological methods. An in-depth study of human sexuality, including psychosocial, cultural and physical aspects.
An in-depth examination of the principles of nutrition and their effects on health and fitness. Emphasis on critical thinking and translation of nutritional knowledge to real-world settings. Includes self-evaluation of diet and fitness habits. Application of health theories and models for program development, implementation, and evaluation in nutritional context. Environmental Health and Safety. Considers applicable factors of ecology, including problems related to water, waste, pesticides, foods, radiation, population, and other aspects of the total ecosystem, as well as personal and occupational safety within these parameters.
Capstone for Community Health and Preventive Services. This course aids students in synthesizing their classroom and internship experiences to reinforce critical skills and key responsibilities for Health Educators. This course will provide students with an overview of resources, skills, and recommendations regarding their professional development. Student is required to have a cumulative grade point average of 2. The opportunity for work experience in a private or public health-related agency.
Opportunities are developed in consultation with the faculty advisor and on-site coordinator. Special Studies in Health. Organized course offering the opportunity for specialized study in an area of health not available as part of the regular course offerings. Most foods and drinks contain calories. Some foods, such as lettuce, contain few calories 1 cup of shredded lettuce has less than 10 calories.
Some people watch their calories if they are trying to lose weight. Most kids don't need to do this, but all kids can benefit from eating a healthy, balanced diet that includes the right number of calories — not too many, not too few.
But how do you know how many calories you need? Kids come in all sizes and each person's body burns energy calories at different rates, so there isn't one perfect number of calories that every kid should eat. But there is a recommended range for most kids between 6 and 12 years old: When they reach puberty, girls need more calories than before, but they tend to need fewer calories than boys.
As boys enter puberty, they may need as many as 2, to 3, calories per day, especially if they are very active. But whether they are girls or boys, kids who are active and move around a lot need more calories than kids who don't.
If you eat more calories than you need, the body changes extra calories to fat. Too much fat can lead to being overweight and other health problems.