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For example, if you eat a maintenance, you might gain a little bit of muscle, but no fat. The retinas of your eyes transmit light to the clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN in the middle of your brain. However, they weigh slightly more than a normal amino acid, which allows us to distinguish them from normal amino acids. Mixed muscle protein synthesis measures the synthesis of all muscle proteins. This clinical study demonstrated that a specific synergy of micronutrients used as an adjunct to conventional treatment provides significant improvements in decreasing frequency, severity and improving life quality of arrhythmia patients.

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This is called de novo muscle protein synthesis. Example paper de novo muscle protein synthesis: When measuring muscle protein synthesis, we can measure mixed muscle protein synthesis all types of muscle protein together. But you can further specify what type of proteins are being synthesized. You can measure myofibrillar protein synthesis. This specifically measures myofibrillar protein synthesis, the protein that contract and gives you mass.

This fraction is highly relevant for building muscle mass. You can also measure mitochondrial protein synthesis. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the muscle, they burn carbohydrate and fat as fuel.

Therefore mitochondrial protein synthesis is more informative about energy production capacity in the muscle and more relevant for endurance athletes. Sarcoplasm hypertrophy does not occur without myofibrillar hypertrophy. Example paper myofibrillar vs mitochondrial protein synthesis: More recently, deuterium oxide D2O, also called heavy water is getting popular to measure muscle protein synthesis.

Example paper deuterium oxide: There is evidence that a variety of signaling molecules are involved in the regulation of muscle protein synthesis. Most notably, the protein from the mTOR pathway. Research of these molecular markers is very important to better understand how physiological processes are regulated and ultimately can be influenced by exercise, nutrition or even drugs.

Therefore, you should be very skeptical to draw conclusions based on studies that only measure molecular markers of muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein breakdown. Methods are not necessarily good or bad. But the interpretation of the data based on these methods can be wrong.

We recently showed that resistance exercise does not increase whole-body protein synthesis Holwerda, So should we conclude that resistance exercise is not effective to build muscle? Whole-body protein metabolism measures the synthesis of all proteins in the body. Other tissues in the body have much higher synthesis rates, and therefore, the muscle only has a relatively small contribution to the total whole-body protein synthesis rates.

In the same study, we also measured muscle protein synthesis using the FSR method both with and without intrinsically labeled protein and de novo muscle protein synthesis. All 3 methods showed that resistance exercise was anabolic for the muscle. Imagine we would have only measured whole-body protein synthesis. Our study would give the wrong impression that resistance exercise is not anabolic, as we saw no increase in whole-body protein synthesis rates.

This study has been getting a lot of attention: Shortly, it says that very large protein meals are beneficial because they reduce protein breakdown. This gathered a lot of attention on social media and some of the comments were: Again, this study gave the wrong impression, because whole-body protein breakdown was mistaken for muscle protein breakdown the latter was not measured in this study.

Both the 40 gram and the 70 gram dose were equally effective at stimulating muscle protein synthesis. One of the purposes of measuring muscle protein synthesis is to study if an intervention helps to build muscle or maintain muscle mass. On social media, I occasionally see people dismissing muscle protein synthesis studies by claiming: Let me first get something out of the way: We run both at our lab, and do some of the most expensive studies in the field of either type.

The concern that muscle protein synthesis may not translate to muscle mass gains got an uprise when the following study was published: A lot of people seem to think that based on this study, muscle protein synthesis measurements do not translate to actual muscle mass gains in the long term.

But that conclusion is way beyond the context of the study. This study measured muscle protein synthesis in the 6 hours after a single exercise bout.

However, resistance exercise can increase muscle protein synthesis for several days. So a 6-hour measurement does not capture the entire exercise response. This study showed that measuring muscle protein synthesis for 6 hours does not predict muscle mass gains.

That is totally different from the conclusion that muscle protein synthesis regardless of measurement time does not predict muscle mass gains. This was followed up by a study which used the deuterium oxide method to measure muscle protein synthesis rates during all the weeks of training not just a few hours after one session , and found that muscle protein synthesis did correlate with muscle mass gains during the training program Brooks, More recently, a study found that muscle protein synthesis measured over 48 hours after an exercise bout did not correlate with muscle mass gains in untrained subjects at the beginning of an exercise training program, but it did at three weeks of training and onwards Damas, While untrained subjects have a large increase in muscle protein synthesis after their initial exercise sessions, they also have a lot of muscle damage.

So muscle protein synthesis is mainly used to repair damaged muscle protein, not to grow. After just 3 weeks of training, muscle damage is diminished, and the increase in muscle protein synthesis is actually used to hypertrophy muscles. So do these studies show that muscle protein synthesis predicts muscle mass gains, but only in the right context.

A huge benefit of muscle protein synthesis studies is that they are more sensitive than studies that measure actual muscle mass gains. This means that muscle protein synthesis studies can detect an anabolic effect easier than long term studies which simply miss it long term studies might draw the wrong conclusion that something does not benefit muscle growth when it actually does.

Muscle mass gain is simply a very slow process. You need to do a huge study, with a huge amount of subjects, who consume additional protein for many months, before you will actually see a measurable effect of protein supplementation. We performed a meta-analysis combining the results of individual studies on the effect of protein supplementation on muscle mass gains.

We demonstrated that only 5 studies concluded that protein supplementation had a benefit, while 17 did not! However, most of the studies that showed no significant benefit, did show a small non-significant benefit. When you combine all those results, you increase the statistical power and you can conclude that protein supplementation actually does improve muscle mass. So in this case, most long-term studies gave the wrong impression, and muscle protein synthesis studies are actually preferred.

There are a lot of long-term studies that have a relative small number of subjects and a small study duration and conclude that an intervention did not work for example, protein supplementation, or X versus Y set of exercise for example.

However, the studies were doomed to begin with. They needed to be 3 times as big and 2 times as long to have a chance to find a positive effect. Now if the effect of giving additional protein is already extremely hard to detect in long-term studies, how realistic is it to find smaller effects? For example, optimizing protein intake distribution throughout the day has been shown to optimize muscle protein synthesis rates Mamerow, Areta, However, this effect is smaller than adding another protein meal.

So the effect of protein distribution is almost impossible to find in a long-term study. For such a research question, acute muscle protein synthesis studies are simply much better suited. The second big benefit of muscle protein synthesis studies is that they give a lot more mechanistic insight.

They help you understand WHY a certain protein is good or not that good at stimulating muscle protein synthesis for example, its digestion properties, amino acid composition etc. These kinds of insights help to better understand what triggers muscle growth and come up with new research questions. These kind of insights are very hard to obtain in long-term studies, which typically only show the end result of the mechanisms.

The benefits of measuring muscle protein synthesis include the sensitivity, controlled environment, and they allow you to investigate questions that are almost impossible to answer in long-term studies. Again, we do both and each has its purpose and build on each other. Usually, muscle protein synthesis studies are performed to see if something work as they are very sensitive and why it works.

Only when you have both, you have pretty convincing evidence that your intervention does what you claim it to do. Multiple sets increase muscle protein synthesis more than a single set Burd, A higher weekly training volume number of sets to muscle results in a greater muscle mass gains Schoenfeld, It is often recommended that a rep range of reps per set is optimal for muscle growth.

For novice untrained individuals with no RT experience or who have not trained for several years training, it is recommended that loads correspond to a repetition range of an repetition maximum RM. For intermediate individuals with approximately 6 months of consistent RT experience to advanced individuals with years of RT experience training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range from 1 to 12 RM in a periodized fashion with eventual emphasis on heavy loading RM using 3- to 5-min rest periods between sets.

However, these recommendations lack evidence. The main takeaway here is that there are no magic rep ranges that are superior for muscle growth. It is unclear whether each set should be taken to failure. Muscular failure decreases performance on subsequent sets, thereby reducing training volume. Perhaps performing a set with reps left in the tank will still give a near-maximal stimulus to the muscle, without much of the associated fatigue. If sets are not taken close to failure, the muscle protein synthetic response will be small Burd, But at least in untrained subjects, training close to failure appears to produce similar muscle mass gains as training to complete failure Nóbrega, A longer rest period between sets increases the larger post-exercise muscle protein synthetic response compared to a short rest period 5 vs 1 min McKendry, In agreement, a longer interset rest period improves muscle mass gains compared to a shorter rest period 3 vs 1 min Schoenfeld, A single bout of resistance exercise can stimulate muscle protein synthesis for longer than 72 hour, but peaks at 24 h Miller, Indeed, training each muscle group at least twice a week results in larger muscle mass gains Schoenfeld, The total muscle protein synthetic MPS response determined by the increase in MPS rates and the duration of these increased rates is decreased in trained subjects compared to untrained subjects Damas, However, the pattern of this decreased response is differs between mixed muscle protein synthesis the synthesis of all types of muscle proteins and myofibrillar protein synthesis the synthesis of contractile proteins: The increase in mixed muscle protein synthesis is shorter lived in trained subjects.

In contrast, myofibrillar protein synthesis rates do not increase as much in trained subjects, but the duration of the increase does not appear impacted. The larger increase in the total muscle protein synthetic response seems like a logical explanation why untrained people can make faster much gains than experienced lifters.

However, this is not necessarily true. In untrained subjects, there is not only a large increase myofibrillar protein synthesis, but also in muscle damage following resistance exercise. A large portion of the myofibrillar protein synthesis is used to simply repair damaged muscle proteins, rather than growing muscle proteins.

In more trained subjects, here is a smaller increase in myofibrillar protein synthesis, but there is also much less or even minimal muscle damage following resistance exercise just weeks of training is enough to see these effects.

This means that in a trained state, the increase in myofibrillar protein synthesis can actually be used to actually increase muscle mass. When you correct for muscle damage, myofibrillar protein synthesis rates measured over 48 hour post-exercise recovery are similair in untrained subjects and after 10 weeks of training Damas, Of course, most athletes would hardly consider someone trained after just 10 weeks.

Unfortunately, little is know about how years of serious training impacts the muscle protein synthetic response to resistance exercise.

Twenty gram of protein gives a near-maximal increase in MPS after lower body resistance. When data of several studies was combined and the amount of protein was expressed per bodyweight, it was found that on average 0.

However, the authors suggest a safety margin of 2 standard deviations to account for inter-intervidual variability, resulting in a dose of protein that would optimally stimulate MPS at an intake of 0.

More recently, it has been shown that the amount of lean body mass does not impact the response to protein ingestion Macnaughton, The authors speculated that this was related to the fact that this was following a session of whole-body resistance exercise compared to the lower-body exercise used in previous studies. Protein sources differ in their capacity to stimulate MPS.

This is best illustrated by study which compared the muscle protein synthetic response to casein, casein hydrolysate and whey protein. Casein is a slowly digesting protein. When intact casein is hydrolysed chemically cut into smaller smaller pieces , it resembles the digestion of a fast digesting protein. Consequently, hydrolyzed whey results higher MPS rates than intact casein.

However, the muscle protein synthetic response to hydrolyzed is lower than that of whey protein. While both proteins are fast digesting, whey protein has a higher essential amino acid content including leucine Pennings, Animal based protein sources are typically have a high essential amino acid content and appears more potent than plant protein to stimulate MPS Van Vliet, However, there this can potentially compensated by ingesting a greater amount of plant protein Gorissen, Leucine is the amino acid that is thought to be most potent at stimulating MPS.

Peak plasma leucine concentrations following protein ingestion typically correlate with muscle protein synthesis rates Pennings, This supports the notion that protein digestion rate and protein leucine content are important predictors for anabolic effect of a protein source. This is best illustrated by study which compared the muscle protein synthetic response to five different supplemental protocol:.

All five conditions increased muscle protein synthesis rates compared to fasting conditions. As expected from our earlier discussion on the optimal amount of protein, 25 gram of protein increased MPS rates more than just 6. Interestingly, the addition of 2. The addition of a larger amount of leucine 4.

This indicates that the addition of a relatively small amount of leucine to a low dose of protein can be as effective as a much larger total amount of protein. Isoleucine and valine use the same transporter for uptake in the gut as leucine. Therefore, it is speculated that isoleucine and valine compete for uptake with leucine, resulting in a less rapid leucine peak which is thought to be an important determinant of MPS rates.

Carbohydrates slows down protein digestion, but have no effect on MPS Gorissen, In agreement, adding large amounts of carbohydrates to protein does not improve post-exercise MPS rates Koopman, However, the addition of carbohydrates to post-exercise protein has no effect on muscle protein synthesis or breakdown rates. The effects of insulin on muscle protein breakdown rates are described in more detail in section 2, and the effects of insulin on muscle protein synthesis are further described in section 7.

Adding oil to protein does not slow down protein digestion or MPS Gorissen, It possible that oil simply floats on top of a protein shake in the stomach, and that a solid fat would delay digestion. One study has reported a greater increase in net muscle balance following full-fat milk compared to fat-free milk although this study used the 2 pool arterio-venous model which is not the most reliable measurement.

Most research has looked at isolated protein supplements in liquid form such as whey and casein shakes. This supports the protein dose-response relationship observed with protein supplements where 20 g of protein gives a near maximal increase in MPS. Minced beef is more rapidly digested than beef steak, indicating that food texture impacts protein digestion. However, there was no difference in MPS between these protein sources.

Beef protein is more rapidly digested than milk protein. However, milk protein stimulated MPS more than beef in the 2 hours. Between 2 and 5 hours, there was no significant difference between the sources. This indicates that digestion speed does not always predict the muscle protein synthetic response of a protein source. As discussed in the previous section, the addition of carbohydrate powder or oil to a liquid protein shake does not impact muscle protein synthesis.

However, it is unknown how the components of large mixed meals interact. For example, the addition whole-foods carbohydrates such rice, potatoes, or bread to whole-food protein sources such as chicken. It can be speculated that the protein in mixed meals is less rapidly digested, which is typically but not certainly not always associated with a lower increase in MPS.

As described in my systematic review, insulin does not stimulate MPS Trommelen, Regardless whether insulin levels were kept low similar to fasted levels or very high, MPS rates were the same in all conditions.

In my systematic review, I describe the effect of insulin in other conditions including in the absence of amino acid infusion, but the conclusion remains that insulin does not stimulate MPS under normal conditions Trommelen, In the bodybuilding world, insulin is sometimes injected at supraphysiological doses to stimulate muscle growth. Insulin inhibits muscle protein breakdown a bit, but only a little is needed for the maximal effect this is discussed in dept in section XXX.

Exercise improves the muscle protein synthetic response to protein ingestion. Therefore, it has been suggested that protein intake immediately post-exercise is more anabolic than protein ingestion at different time points. Probably the best evidence to support the concept of protein timing is a study which showed that protein ingestion immediately after exercise was more effective than protein ingestion 3 h post-exercise though this study used the 2 pool arterio-venous method which is not a great measurement of muscle protein synthesis Levenhagen, In contrast, a different study observed no difference in MPS was found when essential amino acid were ingested 1 h or 3 h post-exercise Rasmussen, In addition, resistance exercise enhances the muscle protein synthetic response to protein ingestion for at least 24 hour Burd, It is certainly possible that the synergy between exercise and protein ingestion is the largest immediately post-exercise and then slowly declines in the next 24 h hour.

However, these data suggest that there is not a limited window of opportunity during which protein is massively beneficial immediately post-exercise, that suddenly closes within a couple of hours. Overal, no clear benefit to protein timing has been found in studies measuring muscle protein synthesis studies.

As such studies are much more sensitive to detect potential anabolic effects compared to long-term studies measuring changes in muscle mass, it unlikely that long-term studies will observe benefits of protein timing. However, this effect was largely explained by the fact that the protein supplementation increased total protein intake, rather than the specific timing of protein intake. An even balance of protein intake at breakfast, lunch and dinner stimulates MPS more effective than eating the majority of daily protein during the evening meal Marerow, Providing 20 g of protein every 3 hours stimulates MPS more than providing the same amount of protein in less regular doses 40 g every 6 hours , or more regular doses 10 g every 1.

The muscle full effect is the observation that amino acids stimulate MPS for a short period, after which there is a refractory period where the muscle does not respond to amino acids.

More specifically, after protein intake, there is an lag period of approximately min before MPS goes up and peaks between minutes, after which MPS returns rapidly to baseline even if amino acid levels are still elevated Bohe, Atherthon, The muscle full effect has given birth to a theory on how to optimize protein intake throughout the day in the online fitness community.

It suggests that after amino acids levels have been elevated, you should let them drop down back to fasting levels to sensitize the muscle to amino acids again. Subsequently, protein intake will stimulate MPS again. The suggested mechanism seems unlikely as many food patterns result in elevated amino acid levels throughout the whole day. The traditional bodybuilding diet consists of very frequent, very high protein meals e. In fact, it was specifically designed with the goal of keeping amino acids elevated throughout the whole day so there would always be enough building blocks for form new muscle tissue.

Or intermittent fasting where all daily protein is eaten in a short time period usually 8 hours. This is best illustrated in a study where the effect of protein was assessed in both rested and post-exercise conditions Churchward-Venne, Protein intake alone stimulates MPS in the h period after ingestion.

Subsequently, MPS rates fall back to basal rates. However, in post-exercise condition, protein stimulated MPS rates in both the h and the h period. It appears that the muscle full effect is not present in acute post-exercise conditions. As discussed above, an effective protein distribution optimizes MPS. Only three days of dieting already reduce basal MPS Areta, This shows that an energy deficit is suboptimal for MPS, however you can grow muscle mass while losing fat Longland, It is unclear if eating above maintenance is needed to optimize MPS.

Second, I will continue to further elaborate sections based on your feedback and add additional sections in the future. Lastly, please reference specific sections from this article when you see a discussion on muscle protein synthesis. People mistaking whole-body protein synthesis for muscle protein synthesis: Someone skeptical about a conclusion from a paper because muscle protein breakdown was not measured?

Someone claiming that protein supplementation is not effective based on a long-term study he read that found no improvement in muscle mass: Feel free to ask me questions about the methods, or interpretation on protein metabolism studies in comments or on Facebook. Especially the difference between mixed protein synth and myofibr protein synth. The mixed protein synthesis data is often used by proponents of very high frequencies Damas study as they point out MPS drops strongly after 10 hours in trained individuals.

The mixed protein synthesis data is not that relevant when you also have myofibrilar protein synthesis data that suggests otherwise. The current picture we now have on myoPS does not support an increased frequency, at least not higher than in untrained subjects where the duration of myoPS appears the same.

It could be speculated that in a more trained status, you need a higher volume number of sets close to failure to get a robust increase in myoPS again, but that is pure speculation. You mentioned in your summary how you just need to eat at maintenance to build muscle. In your opinion, is body recomposition possible then?

But we know very little on how energy intake influences muscle protein synthesis. In practice, people report that bulking helps to gain muscle. If bulking helps to gain muscle, how big should be caloric surplus be to optimize muscle mass gains without disproportional large increases in fat mass?

Personally, I would go for a very small caloric deficits when cutting and a very small caloric surplus during bulking. What a briljant article once again. I believe, that this is one of the few sites that literally, contains the key of an better progress….. Somewhere, and im not sure if it was you,, but perhaps on another site there was a article about optimal training for MPS..

It seems that a FB routine is optimal for MPS as it is elevated for certain time and you train again when the mps is down to base-lines again. But what about a FB while cutting? Would it still be optimal you think? There is a lot of people speculating on optimal training frequencies based on MPS data. I like keeping your training the same as much as possible while cutting. So much info that needs to be unpacked with so many questions. I just read an article from Eric Bach, regarding Norwegian study of two groups performing same volume.

Both groups recently competed in powerlifting event within 6 months. The groups tested the same volume of work and one group trained 3 days a week, but did twice the volume while the other group trained 6 days a week.

Now they did the same workouts on the same reoutine days. The group who worked out 6 days a week had an increase in muscle growth and strength. Not by much, as they are seasoned trainers, but gains are gains. Thanks for diligent research for pleasure. What I find disturbing of the Areta et al. I would love to see a similar design with a higher protein intake. In the work by Areta et al, there were 2 muscle biopsies: Both time points are used to get 1 value: I understand your other concerns.

In short, this was the first study to investigate if protein distribution can impact post-exercise MPS and was designed in such a way that it would be most likely a positive effect would detected if it exists. Indeed it found that protein distribution could impact MPS. As it was the first study to ever investigate and show this, it has a very high scientific value. In contrast, in has much less value in practitioners eyes, because you can question if the results from this study would extend to more real life situations.

Being the first to show evidence of a concept protein distribution can impact MPS is a big deal in science. Of course this concept now needs to be studied under different, more real life conditions. Practitioners are going to say that these studies are designed better, but such follow up studies will be less impactful in the science community. Simply 2 different worlds with different interests. It appears you need a slightly longer energy deficit period before energy intake starts limiting MPS 3 days of dieting, see Areta What I think you should take away from this study from a practical point of view: Muscle biopsies were taken at -0 pre-exercise, and 1, 4, 6, 7 and 12 h post-exercise.

But more importantly, the dose of 10 gr in the spread group is simply sub-optimal, regardless of distribution. The exact same experiment could be conducted with more protein and that would take away a lot of the doubt concerning the sub-optimal dose issue with the pulse group imo. Do you mean this study with Areta et al. And what objections are there to carrying out an experiment like this in the non-fasted state? The main outcome of that study is the FSR measured between h, The FSR assessed during specific intervals is interesting to provide some additional insight in how protein distribution patterns modulate the MPS time course.

However, the aggregate response is what actually matters. In the olympic spirit: But in the end, the medal goes to the one with the highest average speed over the entire race in this case: There is not really such a threshold, there is a linear increase in MPS following protein intake. Furthermore, if you look at the plasma data, the pulse group actually reaches a higher peak leucine than the 20 g group, and is higher at more time points than the leucine group. With higher protein intakes, it is likely there would be no difference between the 3 groups.

All 3 would likely maximally stimulate MPS. This study simply tried to demonstrate for the that protein distribution can impact MPS. It was the first study to demonstrate this, and therefore it is a big deal in our field. It did not try to demonstrate that that a pulse pattern or eating every 1. Obviously, that depends on the total amount of protein ingested.

Note that the 80 g protein ingested in 12 h translates to g protein in 16 waking hours, or a protein intake of 1.

That is exactly the amount athletes typically eat. If total protein intake was much higher, likely all 3 groups would have had maximal MPS rates with no difference between groups. From a scientific point of view, that finding would not not really be valuable. I can come up with another couple of thousand study ideas that do not modulate MPS.

Finding new things that actually can modulate MPS is much more valuable. Having said that, now it is established that protein distribution can modulate MPS, a follow up study that shows that protein distribution has little impact on MPS when total protein intake is high, would be valuable. With regards to energy intake: That was after eating nothing except the protein with or without the carbs in the last 18 h.

An objection to doing the study in a non-fasted state would be that other food intake would delay protein digestion. As a result, it would be less likely that the bolus group would differ from the intermediate group, and less likely that the intermediate group from the pulse group. Another design consideration is the protein source. It is likely that you would see much less of an effect of protein distribution when you have a slowly digesting protein source.

Again, it is much more valuable to first establish that a concept that have influence, and then do follow up work to see if that concept also works in different concepts. Like I mentioned in my previous post, that is the difference between scientific relevance, and relevance to practitioners.

They simply have other priorities. Yes, 4 four meals of 60 g spaced by hour should be very to close to maximizing your gains. Do you mean actual protein researchers? Because none of the top muscle metabolism labs use nitrogen balance anymore as measurement tool to evaluate the anabolic effect on muscles. I am confused because Dr. And get this, they have science to support their recommendations.

This is based on research showing that if you consume a protein meal or essential amino acids , it boosts muscle protein synthesis for only about two hours without another boost in protein synthesis coming for at least another six hours even when adequate amino acids are present.

If you then consume more protein say, another protein shake two hours later, there would be no additional boost in muscle protein synthesis. However, if you wait about six hours or longer to consume that second protein shake, you would get another big increase in muscle protein synthesis. So it makes sense that to maximize muscle growth, you should wait a good six hours between meals so that every meal you eat boosts muscle protein synthesis.

Granted, protein synthesis is very important. However, just because you have a boost in muscle protein synthesis does NOT mean you get an increase in muscle growth.

Muscle growth is a balance between muscle protein synthesis the build up of muscle protein and muscle protein breakdown the breaking down of muscle protein.

To get an increase in muscle growth means that muscle protein synthesis must be greater than muscle protein breakdown. Muscle protein breakdown is happening all the time. What the aforementioned experts are missing by suggesting that you should wait up to six hours between meals is that, while protein synthesis may be maximized, so is muscle protein breakdown, which minimizes any gains you would get in muscle growth.

The best way to maximize muscle growth is to eat a high protein meal at least grams of protein, depending on the protein source every hours. How do I know this? The first year of life is the most critical for rapidly gaining mass.

And to ensure that this happens, we have evolved to eat every hours. As soon as they step up their meal frequency they also step up their muscle mass and strength gains. The Aussie researchers had subjects perform a leg workout and then fed them a total of 80 grams of whey protein over the next 12 hours in three different methods: Greater protein net balance essentially means more muscle growth.

Latency and duration of stimulation of human muscle protein synthesis during continuous infusion of amino acids. Daytime pattern of post-exercise protein intake affects whole-body protein turnover in resistance-trained males.

You wrote that Jim says that a positive nitrogen balance is more important than MPS, but from his article I think you ment he says a positive protein balance is more important? Protein balance is not the same as nitrogen balance see section 3. In section 2, I explain that muscle protein balance almost entirely depends on MPS muscle protein breakdown has little influence. So the measurements in that study are not relevant for muscle.

And the funny thing is, is that even if the measurements were relevant to building muscle, the WHOLE-BODY protein breakdown was the same for the group that ate every 3 hours and the group that ate every 6.

Although I got the PhD, I am much more of a practitioner, and need to dispel a lot of misinformation my patients received from online communities. Having someone else with a PhD saying it makes it even harder.

In regards to the nitrogen balance issue, most exercise physiologists I took classes under flatly denounced any benefit to eating beyond neutral nitrogen balance. Not sure if this was just an old school mentality, or the fact that they did no research in the realm of resistance training or muscle synthesis, but it was surprisingly pervasive.

It was especially alarming as a nutrition grad student, where it was basically common knowledge that nitrogen balance was not all that useful in relation to increased muscle protein. Great article — I will definitely add your website to my list of evidence-based fitness and nutrition. If I go to the gym early in the morning with an empty stomach is that a bad strategy for maximize gains??? In the same situation how can u spread the meals throughout the day??

Fasting is not going to be optimal for muscle mass gains. For optimal muscle mass gains, you should try to never be fasted and always have some protein in your system probably meals spread out throughout the day.

However, the befit of optimally distributing protein over the day compared to intermittent fasting is relatively small. So if you love intermittent fasting and it allows you to not obsess over food, helps with diet adherence, makes you more productive etc, it can be a very effective approach for you.

But for the absolute the best effect on muscle mass gains, a higher meal frequency would be a little bit better. Jorn it might be worth mentioning in the sections on protein intake that the bolus needed does go up with age. Just in case some old guy like me reads your piece, which they will if I have anything to do with it! In older adults, 40 g protein clearly outperforms smaller amounts of protein. Higher doses of protein have not been tested.

So ideally, you want at least 40 g protein at each meal as an older adult. Leucine supplementation might be an effective strategy to enhance the MPS response to meals that contain less than 40 g of protein. Can you comment on this belief? A friend advised me that a very effective way to lose weight was to cycle to exhaustion and then not eat for several hours after completion.

My fear is that this would promote muscle loss, like doing a resistant work-out and not eating afterwards. Can you comment on this?

Protein can be converted to glucose. Your liver glycogen sustains you plasma glucose levels. There are dozens of studies done where subjects get protein without carbs after not eating in the last 10 hours.

In addition, adding carbs to protein does not help to build more muscle. There is absolutely nothing magical about cycling to exhaustion other that it burns some calories. There is absolutely nothing magical about not eating for several hours after exercise, other than that is helps with lowering your caloric intake. Not eating directly after exercise is not necessarily a big deal with regards to muscle loss, as total protein intake during the day is the most important variable for muscle mass.

However, there is no logical reason to wait hours. Ideally, you eat meals high in protein a protein shake can already count as one of those meals to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis rates throughout the day. If I am reading your reply right, you are saying that with regards to protein synthesis, protein is the only macro-nutrient that affects it, the amount of carbohydrates and fats consumed is of little significance.

Am I understanding you right? If this is true then one should be able to achieve maximum muscle gain while simultaneously achieving maximum fat loss by being on a high protein low calorie diet. In other words, you just need some protein to maximize MPS regardless of what you eat along with it or have eaten in the previous 12 h.

However, that only works short-term. In general, you do need to be in energy balance or MPS will go down. You can be in a large energy deficit for 12 hours, without negative effects on MPS. However, being in an energy deficit for 3 days reduces MPS see section 7. Jon thank-you for your great kindness in taking the time to answer my questions and sharing your vast knowledge with me and others! Would an effective strategy for maximum muscle gains be: Or simply eating meals consisting of only protein inter-spaced with meals consisting of only carbohydrate?

Eating protein by itself should raise the MPS rate, since it will be absorbed into the blood stream faster, since there is no carbohydrate to slow down absorption. Are there any micro-nutrients that are necessary for MPS? If the answer is yes then should one take multi-vitamins several times a day to maximize MPS? I have read that during long endurance exercise events that the body utilizes protein for energy along with fat and carbohydrate, a.

Is this phenomenon mostly the result of cortisol being released into the blood stream and so a mechanism that is unique to endurance exercise?. Jon thanks for the re-education! So many myths that I believed have now been dispelled and I understand things much better now. There is no research to show that eating carbs with protein will actually lower MPS though it might a bit.

Because when there is a micro-nutrient deficicy, many body processes may be suboptimal, such as protein digestion, blood flow to the muscle, hormone levels etc. Micro-nutrient status does not change from hour to hour.

Just make sure you get enough micro-nutrients on a weekly basis. Yes, protein is broken down during long endurance events and indeed this is worse when glycogen levels are depleted. It seems likely cortisol plays a role in this. Though cortisol also goes up with dieting for example. First of all thank you for this great sum-up. I really appreciate it. What is your opinion on the usage of metformin in the case of type two diabetes mg tree times a day , would it have an detrimental effect on muscle gain?

Jorn is there any benefit to lifting heavy weights while on a severe calorie restricting diet? Will it help to preserve muscle mass? If on a normal diet and taking insulin for a diabetic condition when should the insulin be taken in relation to a heavy resistance work-out to achieve the most muscle gains? Lifting is absolutely beneficial to preserve muscle mass during caloric restriction. For example, whether taking insulin close to exercise is beneficial for muscle gain?

Thank you for the answer. Can I eat protein every 3 hours in the form of whey protein shakes: Sort of like IF but with shakes every 3 hours. Egg protein powder has been used and appears to be a very good source. Whole eggs have not been used, but I would expect them to be pretty good.

Whey is theoretically the king, because it has everything you want: Most whole-food will be digesting a bit slower, which would theoretically be slightly worse. Your suggested meal pattern would combine optimal protein frequency with the convenience of IF.

I think it would be very effective. I think you could even get away with a shake every 4 h. I eat meals 2pm and 8pm covering the rest of my macros. I actually experience fat gain and muscle loss with a 50 kcal deficit, while I always feel bloated. At the end of last year I gained 15kg weight of which was about 6kg muscle and 9kg fat.

I was kg when I started cutting. Do you have any idea of what may be causing this effect and how I could fine-tune my diet to avoid this bloating, fatty feeling? How did you determine the kcal deficit?

Any formula is just an estimation. Likewise, how did you determine fat mass and muscle mass? Almost all options consumers have access to are quite unreliable on an individual level. You mentioned a severe caloric deficit while cutting and losing all your muscle in 2 months.

Dieting should be a very slow process. You should try to cut that amount on 2 months. You should at most lose 0. I suggest to not gain more than 0. When you gain weight fast, a disproportional amount will be fat mass. When you lose weight fast, a disproportional amount will be lean mass. It shows you really know your stuff! Leucine or carbohydrate supplementation reduces AMPK and eEF2 phosphorylation and extends postprandial muscle protein synthesis in rats.

Jorn what do you think of this study? It is an interesting study. It is based on the muscle full effect described in section 7. In this study, leucine supplementation about 2 h after a meal prolonged the MPS response. So my guess would be that protein itself would do the same. In addition, carbs appeared to prolonged the MPS response to a meal. This is really interessing! Offcourse, i known a lot of this allready but.. There is some new facts that i had learned from this!

What do you think about kcal surplus in bulking, how much do you think you need to build muscle. Maybe i think it is likely that you can build allready muscle with a surplus of maybe I think you can even build muscle without a caloric surplus, but that you can gain more muscle but also fat when bulking. For example, if you eat a maintenance, you might gain a little bit of muscle, but no fat. Bulking with a kcal surplus, you would gain muscle a bit faster, and some minimal fat gain.

Bulking with surplus, you would likely gain muscle a bit faster gain, but now also gain significant amounts of fat. Eating above a kcal surplus will likely have little incremental value for muscle gain, but will massively promote fat gain. My guess would be that small deficits are optimal for body composition. Normally i switch between these 2 forms now and than. Again, great articel and i hope to find much more soon about this subjects on ur site soon!

As long as a set if taken to close to failure, it will give the maximal stimulation to the muscle. I would do the majority of your training with strict form but not intentionally slow down , and do a bit of cheating every now and then.

By the way, i train in my home. Would it even make my GH larger and optimize my gains? Elevating GH for 2 hours will do very little. I would make sure my total amount of sleep is solid, and not try to break it up. I would love an addendum about the effect of total daily protein intake on MPS. My guess would be that every hours would be frequent enough. If i eat g protein in the morning and it stays in my blood during the day, what makes it worse than eating 40g 5 times?

When plasma amino acids levels get high, you oxidize a lot of it burn it as fuel. Perhaps a more frequent protein distribution allows for optimal plasma amino acid levels to optimally stimulate MPS without going to high that you oxidize it?

Based on the data we have, eating meals seems to be the best choice if your goals is to maximize goals. But it definitely is not the end of the world if you would get the same amount of total protein in a day in less meals. I have a question about the MPS reduction that occurs in 3 days of being in a calorie deficit. Is there a study that supports that? The reduction in MPS that occurs while being in a caloric deficit likely is linked to average calorie intake.

Otherwise you could trick your body with alternative day fasting for example, and that does not seem to be the case. There was no exercise component in the study. In addition, the groups were not in the same caloric deficit. And the majority of the study was unsupervised. A much more comprehensive study was published recently, and found no differences between groups: Every last muscle will be feeling it!

This session allows you to unwind, get stretched, and relax more deeply into restorative poses than ever before! Discover a unique fusion of familiar restorative yoga postures blended with powerful Thai yoga therapy techniques. Learn how compassionate touch can enhance your own classes and how hands-on assists can help participants enter more blissful states of relaxation.

Since stress is the prime cause of most illness and lost time at work, it's imperative that fitness professionals understand the science behind reducing stress and the impact that it has on the body. Using principles from restorative yoga, this in-depth, therapeutically based workshop will guide you toward a deeper connection with your physical, mental, and emotional bodies, resulting in a more balanced central nervous system for optimum wellness.

This session is useful for personal practice and also provides easy tips and techniques to help your clients release chronic tension and stored stress from their bodies. Postural assessment is the first pillar of yoga therapy examination and begins from the base s of support in all standard postures: A fundamental principle of yoga is that alignment of structure dictates the flow or communication of prana, or life energy.

We'll learn to observe asymmetries in various postures: This generates an introspective attitude as we sense, then confirm visually, how our awareness shifts in our yoga poses. With HIIT being a workout staple, experience how responsive the Keiser M3i is to interval training and discover new formatting ideas that go beyond the science to applied experiences.

Layer in a marketing plan and you have a HIIT program that is results-based and revenue-driven! Knowledge keeps our clients safe and having a great playlist sets the mood, but only a superb delivery keeps members engaged and asking for more.

We assume that great instructors are talented and skilful, but there is something more, something intangible, that makes them special. Truly great instructors are also great performers. Presence, showmanship, theatrics, and voice modulation are some of the topics we'll explore to bring out the performer in you! The three C's are the secret behind every successful cycling instructor: Take a deep dive into what makes an ordinary class extraordinary and learn trade secrets to take your class to the next level.

This is one workshop you do not want to miss! Science is proving that we have more control over the aging process than previously understood. Neither instructors nor clients should accept chronic pain, stiffness, loss of mobility, poor posture, or weight gain as inevitable. In fact, healthy muscle cells, fascia, and connective tissue can keep you youthful and energetic throughout your years.

Essentrics is designed for all levels of fitness, even those getting back into exercise after a long sedentary period. Trainer Jo will share how to maintain balance: This session includes topics like 'train yin and yang,' 'walk in and out,' body transformation nutrition ,taekwondo ,tai chi, weight training, and sport conditioning training.

A healthy pelvic floor means more than doing kegels. Proper strengthening and stabilizing of the pelvic floor creates the correct foundation for each movement in the body. Known in the yoga world as moola bandha literally "root lock" , the pelvic floor has been an integral part of yoga for thousands of years. Understanding the mechanics of the muscles involved and having the ability to simply and effectively cue your clients to engage their pelvic floor is a crucial element for the fitness professional or yoga teacher.

We'll cover anatomical theory, physical poses, and a short practice. That yellow jersey requires mental toughness and a never-quit conviction that you can reach a goal bigger than yourself. Learn to cultivate true grit through your coaching. This workshop is based on cutting-edge sport psychology strategies designed to add volume and intensity to your instructor playbook.

This is a comprehensive course that will increase your knowledge of how to perform CPR on adults in any emergency. This session is offered on Friday at 7: We'll look at the nervous systems' involvement in muscle tightness and decipher why many people don't get positive effects from stretching. Without providing stability through motion, could our stretching techniques be inhibited? Can using only body weight create an effective workout for any level client?

Explore a workout that takes you through a series of standing exercises designed to strengthen and tone from the ground up. No additional props or external resistance are needed in this creative full-body training session that targets muscular strength and endurance, balance, and control. Exercise variations are included to increase or decrease challenge and intensity, and we'll also discuss cueing and motivating techniques.

A functional fitness program that rapidly tones and shapes muscles through a dynamic combination of strengthening and stretching. Designed to develop long, lean, flexible muscles with immediate changes to posture and range of motion, it's perfect for both men and women of all fitness levels. This zero-impact, weight-free workout rebalances the body, prevents and treats injuries, and unlocks tight joints. Teaching Essentrics as a standalone workout or as a complement to other activities will protect your joints, give you overall flexibility, and offer a sustainable approach to long-lasting health.

You can prolong your career doing what you love! Writing about health, nutrition, and fitness for magazines and the web — and sharing that published content via social media channels — opens the door to a higher profile and payment for your writing and services in the fitness industry. Discover tricks of the trade for crafting and sharing informative and entertaining articles and blog posts.

Receive in-depth guidance from a seasoned writer for finding your place in the lucrative niche of health and fitness writing. Come in with a sense of playfulness and adventure, leave with a sense of empowerment! This arm-balancing workshop will challenge you mentally and physically, yet with a centered and mindful practice, you may surprise yourself. Based on safety and using the seven principles of alignment in a space without expectations, judgment, or competition.

Always wanted to try Firefly? We'll warm up both mind and body before focusing on step-by-step safety and alignment cues. Along with a little inspiration and courage, we'll see where our practice takes us. The shoulder region is intricate: Our shoulders are used in almost every yoga pose: Building strong shoulders is crucial to be able to flow seamlessly from foundational poses like Downward Dog into more advanced poses like Headstand.

Understand the complexity of the shoulder, how to reduce injury, and build strength safely through yoga. Putting together cycling classes that keep riders engaged and challenged can be difficult at times. But knowing a few tricks will help you organize and execute a memorable ride.

Beginning with a playlist selection that connects music with energy demands and following up with the correct balance of drills and games creates the perfect formula for cycling success. If you're ready to ride, we're ready to deliver in this idea-packed session.

Power lives in the transverse plane. Learn to unleash strength and power with circle walking, taken from the ancient world of martial arts. This tool can help your clients disassociate the upper body from the lower body during motion. Foot control, hip stability, thoracic mobility, neck strength, and contralateral movement patterns are assessed and corrected with this fundamental movement.

Circle walking acts as a force multiplier for power by accelerating improvement in everything else. We'll also introduce more complex variations of yin and yang circular patterns. Be prepared to take your shoes off and have some fun! Referred to as the organ of form, fascia is a continuous matrix around our organs, muscles, joints, bones, and nerves. We know that maintaining fascia health leads to better circulation of fluids, mobility, recovery, and performance, and a decreased chance of injuries.

The all-new Myobuddy Massager Pro is a professional-strength massager that treats trigger points and adhesions and addresses sore muscles quickly while helping to prep the body for movement. Reap the benefits of healthy fascia and keep yourself and clients moving well! This baby boomer-based boot camp is focused on function with a healthy dose of modifications and motivation! You'll experience a workout that's heavy on strength, agility, balance, and core and walk away with imaginative exercises with layers and options to accommodate and appeal to a broad range of abilities.

A design schematic helps you efficiently organize classes that offer inspiration, purpose, and progression. Is your body craving a deeper stretch? Is your mind calling for stillness and calm? Yin Yoga is a quiet practice where we hold poses for minutes. We work through the ebb and flow of discomfort and comfort in the body like waves ranging in intensity, working with the connective tissue — tendons, fascia, and ligaments — to improve circulation and overall flexibility.

Join us for the perfect way to end your conference weekend with deep meditative stretches that will leave you feeling open, relaxed, and soothed. We respect your privacy. Foundations of Safety for Personal Practice and Teaching. Time Wednesday, Thursday 8: Number of CECs 4. Description This workshop gives instructors the tools to create inspiring Vinyasa yoga classes founded on flow yet grounded in the safety of exercise science.

Price Professional Member, Delegate: Fit and Focused Kids. Description Research has confirmed what yoga teachers already know: Description Effective flexibility training not only helps prevent injury, it improves muscle recovery, athletic performance, functional independence, and the client-trainer relationship.

Price Professional Member Delegate: From Then to Now. Number of CECs 3. Description A full one-day introduction to Hardstyle kettlebell techniques, practices, drills, and exercises. Description Two indisputable facts: Presenter Bodyshred Master Trainer. Utilizing Jillian's interval approach to whole body circuit training 3 min. Elite workout methods like HIIT, PHA, plyometrics, super-setting, combo lifting, 3-dimensional movement possibilities, functional bodyweight training and much more, come together in one powerful class that offers you the most successful way to get lean and shredded fast.

This class is unparalleled in its approach and its results! Description This course is a general education course suitable for anyone interested in learning more about striking fundamentals.

Notes What You Will Learn The course covers everything you need to teach basic punching, stance and movement technique as well as how to hold focus pads. Qualifying your clients for striking Striking specific mobilization and stabilization protocols Hand wrapping Footwork Straight punch, hook and uppercut technique Focus pad stance, position and shock absorption for straight punches, hooks and uppercuts Multiple punch combinations Shadow boxing and movement homework.

Description Crush your sales and marketing goals over the next 12 months! Description This intensive one-day course was developed in consultation with Dr. Stuart McGill and is for exercise professionals working with clients who suffer from chronic or intermittent non-specific lower back pain.

You will be introduced to some of the frequent mechanisms that cause lower back pain, common myths, spine hygiene and exercise programming considerations.

Those who take this course will walk away with foundational principles and proven clinical tools that can improve client outcomes and reduce their pain. Low back pain is a common occurrence and as an exercise professional you should have an understanding of potential mechanisms of that pain and how to address them.

Number of CECs 2. Description Barre workouts can be both vigorous and enjoyable. Description Coach Benson, co-author of the new canfitpro PTS textbook, teaches the biomechanics of assessment and movement.

Description Savasanahhh is the perfect blend of yoga and Thai massage. Description Building on concepts and techniques learned in Part 1, this session will focus more on mobility and function than flexibility alone. Description Boot camp fitness instructors lead the fight against obesity, challenging participants to become their absolute best through the use of effective and exciting functional fitness training as practiced by elite military forces. The results are body fat loss, improved strength and stamina, increased confidence, and higher spirits.

We'll look at proper form and safety, planning and executing functional fitness programs for outdoor and indoor environments, cadence calls, circuit fitness training, military-style obstacle courses and fitness tests, fitness games, partner-assisted exercises, individual tracking techniques, and diet and nutrition.

Participants who successfully complete the course will receive a certificate within 30 days. Description A full-day course with all the information you need to be able to instruct group indoor cycling classes. Presenter Jeffrey Scott and Doris Thews. Presenter Hosted by Emma Barry with: Description Women Who Influence has become one of the most popular events at world fitness expo. Attendees will enjoy a healthy lunch, entertainment, networking, draw prizes, and each receive a special event swag bag with incredible gifts from our event sponsors.

Description Adopting long-term healthy habits is one of the hardest behavioural changes for many people. Number of CECs 1. Description High performance data has never been as accessible as right now. Description What does healthy communication consist of? And how do we actually communicate? We'll discuss how we can communicate better with ourselves, in our relationships, and with our colleagues. This session will focus on the power of conscious language. An Integrated Holistic Approach.

Description Back pain affects many clients, yet its etiology and progression can be multidimensional. Description Increasing life expectancy has generated intense focus on the biological mechanisms of old age and longevity.

In this research-driven presentation, Len unveils the 10 key rules to slow down aging, extend lifespan, and live optimally. If you work with a mature population, this lecture will give you inspiring new interventions to share with these clients.

Latest Ideas and Strategies. Description As the scientific, medical, and fitness communities shift their focus to the importance of recovery, what applications and takeaways exist for fitness professionals?

Get an overview of some of the latest ideas and research on this topic and learn a variety of strategies and applications you can use to improve and monitor recovery for yourself, your clients, and your athletes.

Description From the draft to training camp to preseason to the championship, learn how to recruit, hire, develop, and retrain an amazing team of passionate, productive personal trainers.

This session will explore every component of the employee lifecycle and look at systems and best practices to help you create your dream team. Description You're a great personal trainer but you'd rather avoid having to ''fix your clients' daily dramas.

Description You already knew that your gut is largely responsible for digestion, but we have long underestimated its power over immune system function, our emotions, and mental health.

Sometimes called 'the second brain,' the enteric nervous system will be the focus of this session. You'll leave with an understanding of how this fascinating system affects our lives and how keeping it healthy can positively affect health, fitness goals, and overall well-being.

Intro to Interval Training, for a Level 1 Client. Description An introduction to interval training and how to introduce it in a group class.

Description This workshop utilizes extremely effective Variable Intensity Interval Training VIIT techniques with WaterRower drills and body resistance exercises uniquely arranged to muster muscle-fatigue like never before. Description Clients with limited mobility or restricted movement need not shy away from exercise.

Should you Stabilize or Mobilize. Description Have you ever heard the phrase "proximal stability leads to distal mobility and strength? Description Yury explores the background to traditional tenets of Buddhist meditation, from principles to prana to practices. But beyond just learning the theory, you'll practice meditation to gain some new pranayama skills and drills that you can implement into your own life or use with clients and classes immediately for both physiological and psychological benefits.

Cashing In on their Distinct Ideologies. Description The generational differences between Millennials and Boomers are vast. This session profiles the unique behaviours of both groups, delving into their media preferences, spending habits, and attitudes to help your brand build strategies that will leverage the gaps between the two, all in an effort to drive traffic and member conversion. Sell Smarter in the Modern Marketplace.

Description When you type, text, or tweet, how persuasive are you? Do you get answered — or ignored? Forget firm handshakes and eye contact — first impressions in the 21st century are dependent on your digital persuasiveness.

In person, you have 8 seconds to make a first impression; online, it's 2. You'll leave this session empowered and equipped to attract attention, increase your influence, and win more opportunities in the digital age.

Tune Into Your Inner Frequency. Description Meditation reduces stress, increases energy and mental clarity, and bolsters the immune system and overall vitality. Injury Prevention and Awareness. Description For an athlete, injury can be a huge setback or even a career threat. Description Do you want to learn how to qualify and teach a client boxing basics such as the stance, jab and cross punches?

We recommend each attendee bring a pair of boxing gloves. Key Progressions for Core Training. Description Coach Vives will discuss concepts of fundamental, transitional, and functional exercise inspired by the developmental sequence, providing a progressive approach to applying functional exercises with an emphasis on vital core training. Presenter Amanda Grant and Karine Opasinski. Description Think you have what it takes? Presenter Darin Dieterich and Barbara Klein. Description Barbara and Darin will share their training and teaching approach for clients suffering from athletic and weekend warrior-related injuries.

This medical fitness approach will provide fun and clever exercises and combinations suitable for the fitness arena. Description Does the music move you? Description A physical and mental journey that will unlock a different side of coaching indoor cycling. The mind is our true motivator, and during this indoor cycling master class you'll actually experience how the mind controls what the body achieves.

You'll be guided through races, powerful climbs, and flats utilizing the mind as a motivator through visualization, mental focus, and even relaxation. Mixing together the power of the mind and the body, see what you can truly achieve. Description Learn the secret to creating buzz in the locker room and a wait list for your class. Description Join Gin Miller as she introduces the most exciting concept in group fitness since Step Aerobics.

Description A brand new presentation on the emerging field of sports medicine focused on weight-training injuries. Description Stairmaster has created a formula that allows clubs and trainers alike to make use of any and all available equipment options, employing unique interval protocols that result in endless options for plug-and-play workouts.

Description This is a comprehensive course that will increase your knowledge of how to perform CPR on adults in any emergency. Be sure to check your email for announcements of our exciting line-up! Description Learn the foundation of the kettlebell get-up, sometimes referred to as the Turkish get-up. Endorphins, Estrogen, and Empowerment. Description Women have many unique health requirements, and there is fundamental information that every woman needs to know to live an optimal life.

Gillian will discuss how to make your hormones work for you to boost your energy, fitness, and health. Description Sacroiliac SI joint pain is a debilitating and problematic issue. Description Based on scientific studies by Dr. Len Kravitz and colleagues, experience a multimedia journey through the physiology of anaerobic conditioning and the unique responses to various circuit-training protocols. Description The modern trainer is equal parts coach, nutritionist, and confidant.

In our quest to create functional and fit clients, we often see that people are moving in unsustainable and mechanically poor positions. Increases in intensity, load, metabolic demand, volume, speed, and novelty have moved the need to limit the reinforcement of movement compensation to the front of the coach's problem list.

We must be able to identify, anticipate, and limit an athlete's compensation strategies without reinforcing and contributing to movement-related dysfunctions down the road. You'll leave this fascinating session with practical tools to address and limit compensation patterning in your clientele. This is part 1 of a 2 part supersession. It is strongly recommended that you attend both parts.

Description Evolve your core training and take it to the next level! Description Why do most coaches struggle so much in becoming successful business owners? Description While our focus in this industry is to deliver physical, mental, and emotional change, many people feel stuck in life's labyrinth, afraid to try a new path. The only way to optimize our lives is to make time to review our daily habits frequently — our choices and practices are the true building blocks for a better future.

We'll look closely at how habits impact our ability to achieve goals. Learn how to hack your daily habits and maximize all of your efforts, as we explore a well-respected change management system that can be implemented to deliver immediate results.

Description There are close to 3, startup companies innovating in the fitness technology space according to leading venture capital tracking site AngelList. Description Stress and inflammation continue to garner medical and media attention, but why? What's the link between stress, inflammation, and overall quality of life?

We'll review emerging research in this area and how it trumps our diet and activity programming. You'll leave this session with a deeper understanding of concepts and applications so you can expand your services and be more successful.

Intro to Integrated Bodyweight Training. Description An exciting four-event athletic challenge utilizing the WaterRower, Battle Ropes, and body-resistance exercises in teams of four athletes each.

Description Can you already do splits and bridges but want to take your flexibility to the next level? Description The shoulder is one of the most problematic joints in the body. Description Motherhood is a busy time and involves multifaceted movement. Description This intense circuit will release mobility impairments from head to toe.

You will learn proven ways to get the most out of your people and create a winning culture that wins you profits. Discover how adding extra dimensions to the way you sell your personal training business can generate a greater income for you, faster results for your clients, and set the base for a higher client retention and referral rate.

You will leave with easy to apply skills, a revamped relationship with money and a new mindset about the way you see yourself as a sales Pro. Presenter Perry Tucciarone and Scott Wildeman. Description The Prescription to Get Active movement started in one small town with one doctor and one recreation centre and has now expanded to two provinces, writing well over 20, prescriptions for gym passes in A doctor's prescription has the power to move people into action.

You need to make sure your club is prepared and that you are a partner in this program that can change the face of the Canadian health club industry. Joe will cover the three pillars of getting qualified referrals into your business fast and easily! Description This informative workshop is meant to demystify yoga by understanding the basic safety principles involved in a class flow.

Description Barre classes have been continually on the rise and in demand and for good reason! This results-driven class effectively shapes, tones and strengthens the muscles while giving bursts of cardio elements. Learn why this barre class format is sought after by fitness fanatics and learn why more clubs are now incorporating Barre on the Group Exercise schedule. Stacey will explain the history, the principles and benefits of barre and have you working muscles you forgot you had!

Description Be inspiring, save your vocal cords, and get the undivided attention of your participants. Together Each Achieves More. Presenter Kristy Kilcup and Javier Santin. Description When the music and coaching are spot-on, rhythm riding can be a magical experience. Description We love it — and yes many of us still teach step classes! Gin and a team of canfitpro step all-stars will take you through your paces in this freestyle, super-fun, choreography-filled step session.

Join your favourite presenters as they provide you with proven ways to break down patterns for participant success while keeping the movement, flow, and intensity high. Fill your step toolbox with new combinations and a fun, fresh take on your favourite step moves. Description Bending and squatting are primal pattern movements that depend on an efficient hip hinge pattern.

Presenter Sonja Friend Uhl. Description The latest training tool for boxing specialists and fitness enthusiasts alike. Description Experience this advanced multi-modality workout that will leave you properly worked but wishing for more.

Description What is self-care? What do these terms mean and how can we get these emotional health-care needs met? We'll discuss the difference between the two along with ways to support ourselves and others.

Description Learn how to deal with major shoulder concerns within the scope of your practice. Description This remarkable new lecture summarizes recently published research and the latest science on the physiological effects of exercise in women.

A comprehensive review of fat metabolism, hormones, caloric expenditure, and female physiology related to exercise will be discussed. The new block, cluster set, and PHA resistance training programs will be introduced. This is part 2 of a 2 part supersession.

Grip, Tip, Flip, and Strip. Description This highly interactive workshop identifies the indispensable attributes all exceptional communicators must have to cultivate a climate of connection, rapport, and relationship building in order to sell solutions, close the deal, and retain members.

Description Do you feel that sometimes an invisible force is making you do the opposite of what you know you should be doing? Well, it may be that your brain is programmed against you! Learn the different layers of the brain and a three-step system to help you reprogram your own brain to succeed in your fitness career. Description This session will take a look at some of the most vilified nutrients of our time and discuss whether their reputation is truly warranted.

We'll touch upon the concept that there might not be a one-size-fits-all perfect dietary plan for everyone and instead acknowledge that our mission should include finding a nutritional approach that allows each client to live their healthiest, most vital life.

Technology and Manual Practices. Description Research in medicine, psychology, and fitness continues to explore the importance of recovery and methods for monitoring its effect upon health and performance. This session reviews current and emerging strategies for monitoring stress and optimizing recovery, and the applications of technology and manual practices that practitioners can use with their clients, patients, and athletes to maximize results.

Description Get ready to find out where plyometrics precede stretching, strength is in length, breath is transforming, and sport meets your spirit: Description This hands-on workshop blends assisted stretching, therapeutic postures, and acupressure techniques to help your clients improve their mobility, muscular recovery, and athletic performance.

Description A program of strengthening and flexibility exercises to improve core strength, range of motion, flexibility, mobility, and posture, while helping to reduce joint pain. Description Do you, or someone you know, have Osteoarthritis or Osteoporosis? Let's examine these two very common conditions, their differences, the risk factors, the symptoms, the limitations displayed. Exercises can be used as an effective non-drug treatment plan to reduce pain and improve one's daily living.

We will review the contraindicated exercises and explore safer ways to manage physical distress, joint restrictions, and how to maintain function. Description Identify your leadership style, your performance boosters, and break-downs, along with those of your five key employees or colleagues.

With these facets of your team's characteristics understood, we'll look at five critical factors that ensure a successful outcome for commitment and change.

When one of them is missing, change is viewed as unpredictable, chaotic, slow, and frustrating. Powerful leaders don't rely entirely on knowledge, talent, and education — they also need integrity, intention, practice, and open-heartedness.

The type of leader you are reflects the way your team views challenges, commitment, and change. What type of leader do you wish to be? Description Impact entrepreneurship has grown as rising social, economic, and environmental issues have led to increased poverty and inequity and an unhealthy planet. The business world is responding with a 'shift to the middle' where pure profit is no longer an option, and social responsibility has found a way into the DNA of a record number of enterprises.

Explore the remarkable impact that social innovation is having in the fitness industry. Ignite the Power of Social Sharing. Amplifying your message beyond your existing audience depends upon your ability to earn social shares from your customers, clients, and fans.

Understanding the psychology behind why we share what types of content with whom is the key to harnessing the viral power of social media. Whether you're marketing to millennials or boomers, the science behind social media sharing will have you examining your social media efforts through a new and clearer lens. Description Too many fitness professionals struggle to find prospective clients.

Description The nature of most fitness regimens keeps hip movement along one plane, leading to lack of mobility through both the hip joint and low back. Description Small group training uses smart circuits to effectively train multiple clients and athletes.

Description Revolutionize your cardio workout and feel the Latin heat with exotic world rhythms in red-hot, never-before-seen ways. Time Friday, Sunday 8: Description A cardio jam session inspired by the infectious, sweat-dripping fun of playing the drums. Description Back by popular demand! Presenter Kristy Kilcup and Doug Rusho. Description "Teamwork is the fuel that allows common people to attain uncommon results. Description In this workshop you'll learn what to play, when to play it, and where to find the music and remixes that no one else on your team will have.

Description Join an all-star team of canfitpro presenters as they celebrate 25 years of fitness! Presenter Steve Tansey, Josh Berrier.

Newbody is a low-impact cardiovascular and muscle defining workout. It is designed to be simple to follow, highly aerobic in nature with emphasis on getting real results fast! The workout is ideal for all fitness levels, options to use light hand held weights for extra challenge. Interested in improving posture, overall body strength, and burning unwanted calories? Description A fun-loving, insanely addictive dance workout. Presenter Gavin Featherstone, Anna Lowery. Burn up to calories a workout and get fit fast.

Learn all the basic cycling moves like standing up, sitting down, changing hand positions, speeding up and slowing down. You control your own resistance levels and sprint speed so you can build up your training level over time. If you want a true sense of achievement, get into an RPM class today. Description People thrive on genuine interaction and authentic experiences. What are the unique qualities that YOU bring? Get ready to expand your comfort zone! Description The fitness world is filled with competitors.

So how do we, as Les Mills instructors, stand apart from the rest? Tauvaga will share key tools on how to create life changing fitness experiences, every time you teach. Description Muscle imbalances can be a real problem in everyday life and these can be exaggerated during physical training.

Correcting such imbalances is important for achieving the correct range of movement and keeping our joints healthy. This session will enhance your ability to recognize the common technical faults. By the end of this session you will be able to apply corrective exercise solutions that will keep you fit for the next releases.

Description This exciting session delves into the details of optimal recovery and provides a number of sequences that you can apply immediately. Move Well then Move Often. Description Too often, exercise programs begin with "how much can I lift?

Description Advanced fitness business owners want more time and freedom … but struggle to find it. Description Most personal trainers get into the business to work with healthy people who have fitness goals. Yet how many of your clients are showing up to your space wanting to feel better? How many clients need program modifications in order to accommodate the aches and pains?

Pain is a huge limiting factor in your clients achieving their fitness goals. Delegates are strongly encouraged to register for all 3 parts.

Healthy Eating Lifestyle Program. Description This fresh presentation reviews new consult forms and strategies to help clients implement healthy eating behaviour.

Caloric Quality or Caloric Quantity. Description We eat, burn, and obsess about calories, but are the values we use even correct? What about calories in versus calories out? Or higher-intensity exercise with more carbohydrate calories vs. Confused and trying to make sense of it all? Look no further — this session will sift through the information, separating old science from new, fact from fiction. You'll leave with a clearer understanding of the facts so you can program and educate effectively.

Business Tips from canfitpro Award Winners. FPOYs will highlight their career journey and business growth, share their best aha moments, successes, challenges and learnings. Following the panel discussion, audience members are invited to gather with individual FPOYs to gain insight and exchange contact information. Description With every step we take we encounter ground reaction forces that rapidly enter the body.

Description The practice of meditation is about observing, taming, and clearing the mind. Want to become a better version of yourself and live more harmoniously in all areas of your life? Meditation reduces emotional responses like reactivity, stress, anxiety, and depression, and promotes inner joy and peace, improving concentration, quality of sleep, and getting you more in touch with yourself.

When you confront life's obstacles with a serene mind, you live more happily. Learn how to steady the mind, connect with inner stillness, and discover the infinite well of wisdom that lies within through various techniques and a step-by-step approach. Description Designed for yoga instructors, this hands-on session explores yoga asana assists from a Thai massage perspective.

The Holy Grail of Hips. Description The ability to slide gracefully and easily into the splits can seem intimidatingly unobtainable for many. But, as with most fitness or skill goals, the journey to a square, flat split begins with a single step. Whether you're aiming to reach greater depths in your split or are simply looking to create healthier, more open hips, join Alisha and uncover the tools, tips and techniques to progressively building strong and flexible hips.

Description Crunches have been around for over a decade now and the promises of flatter abs and no more back pain have never been met. Description Ever wondered why some people are naturally attracted to specific individuals and follow everything they say or do? Do you want to take your place as a leader in the fitness industry?

Most people seek advice but do what they want anyway. To lead is not telling people what to do: Leaders don't leave an external map for others to follow — they plant internal maps inside others and help them grow their own personal GPS. Find out the system and key drivers to be the leader you know you can be. Description Create a beloved business that no one leaves and that everyone contributes to.

You'll walk away from this highly interactive session with five winning strategies to ignite your people business. Understand the trends driving the skills and wants of tomorrow's talent, create an intoxicating people proposition, learn to facilitate complete alignment, take a strengths-based approach, and embed rituals to deepen experience and loyalty for staff and members.

Description By the year , the fastest-growing segment of the population with be those 85 and older. There will be 70 million year-olds and older in North America alone. This staggering shift in demographics promises to have a tremendous impact on our economic, social, and physical well-being. In light of this, we'll address both land and water programming for group fitness professionals and personal trainers alike.

Description To analyze why someone can't achieve a posture, we must look past the surface of the body and see it as a moving skeleton, identifying which joints are involved and determining their range of motion. Description Get your Zen on and your heart rate up.

Description Circuit training is an effective and popular way to train both heart and muscle, but as a coach, creating this type of workout can be challenging. What exercises are best? How can I cater to all levels of fitness? How do I coach the entire group while motivating each separate team?

Sharpen your coaching skills while learning new drills to create a dynamic yet challenging circuit training session. Description Learn how to design an effective running program that incorporates strength training. Get on the cutting edge and get your clients outside and experiencing the joy of running. This is a practical workshop that will alternate between stints of running and strength training outdoors along the beautiful Toronto waterfront.

This session will require no more than five minutes of running at a time. Description Feel like you're stuck in a rut with your body sculpt classes? Need some new ideas? This presentation is a one-stop workshop that offers instructors five unique program design ideas ready to update your classes.

Utilizing familiar equipment options, review the training principles that not only make your classes effective, but will help your participants get real results. See how the simple ideas work to provide endlessly inspiring options to end burnout and boredom and bring your classes into the 21st century! Taking on the Tech Challenge. Optimal Intervals Part Deux: Presenter Pam Benchley and Charly Vivés. Description It has been said that training makes us weaker: Description Our wildly successful class-design workshop BOGOF is back by popular demand — bigger, better, and primed to leave you with a ton of ideas that will keep you and your riders happy for a very long time.

Description Experience this step interval format designed to challenge your cardiovascular system and the strength and endurance of the lower body. Easy-to-follow athletic step combinations with intervals of lower-body strength exercises create a total lower-body blast of a workout. You'll give your Monday morning class an intensity boost and get your participants the results they crave. Walk away though not easily! Description Breath is life.

Building a Healthy Canadian Ecosystem Together. Paul Oh and Jessica Nooyen. Description The growing global epidemic of sedentary lifestyle, suboptimal nutrition and consequent chronic diseases demands that fitness, nutrition and medical professionals tightly integrate to re-shape Canadian health care.

Positively changing personal behaviours are the interventions with the greatest potential to improve the health of the population. During this interactive session, we will together design a model of collaborative care including: We will share current successes and address future challenges in creating this healthier ecosystem. The Future of Personal Training: Nutrition Secrets for Increasing Energy and Performance. Description In this lecture Julie Daniluk reviews the latest research on the foods and supplements that can reduce fatigue and pain, rev metabolism, balance hormones and boost the immune system.

She also shares her knowledge on cleansing the organs, reducing cravings and creating a stronger body. Description Is striving to be perfect holding you back from meeting your potential? Discover new ways to be at your most creative and productive by changing your mindset from perfectionist to potentialist. This interactive session is based on Petra's book, "The Perfection Detox. Build a life and career that celebrates mistakes, grows from failures, and thrives in uncertainty as you discover strategies that nurture an environment where creativity and big ideas can flourish.

Tame your inner critic, live bravely, and unleash your joy. What the Future Holds! Description The fitness industry has jumped, stepped, danced, cycled, pumped, stretched, and meditated its way into Canadian households over the past 25 years. Well, the past is your future!

Yes, many of your past members have aged and are now seeking new ways to remain fit, healthy, and active 'beyond the burn. Attend this session to find out how can you be part of this change.

Presenter Gerry Visca and Angela Kontgen. Description A high-energy and transformational delivery for inspired leaders. Get ready for internationally acclaimed speaker, author, and 'Why Guy' Gerry Visca as he helps leaders create a meaningful legacy to shape and shift the world. Leaders that 'lead knowing why' attract and retain higher calibre teams, strengthen collaboration, connect with the hearts of their customers, and differentiate themselves from a noisy marketplace.

This is about harnessing true 'why power' — your inspired reason for being. Walk away with three steps to take your service from great to remarkable! Description Join Mo and Helen for this dynamic fusion of fitness and function, integrating 50 years of experience in functional training philosophy and practice into a 60 minute training session that will highlight 25 of their favorite exercises in a 60 minute workout.

Description From a coaching perspective, recognizing and understanding the importance of self-healing in order to avoid burning out is vital. This session will shine a spotlight on your current life priorities and how you can manage those priorities in order to achieve longevity in this industry. Description Research has shown that the use of self-affirmation can help with multiple types of behaviour change, including the increase of physical activity, healthy eating patterns, medication adherence, smoking cessation, and even-improved study habits.

Mary will review current findings and lead you through several positive self-affirmation experiences. You'll leave with renewed motivation and strategies that will help not only you but your clients as well. Presenter Ginette Biro and Mark Campbell. Description If you could have the answers for direction regarding your health and fitness, would you want to know? Does your body respond better with higher carbs or higher fats?

Will your results show sooner with endurance or strength based exercise? The answer lies within you. Cutting edge scientific research awaits you to unlock the power of your DNA. Description To be a Spartan takes more than just completing an obstacle course. Description Amplify fitness and athleticism with a high-energy training template that will optimize results for all fitness levels.

Description Are you doing the right things to generate maximum revenues from your personal training program? Learn everything you need to know about internal and external marketing campaigns, referral programs, cross-promotions, and yearly marketing plans. Presenter Todd Durkin and Peter Twist. Description Updated for ! For the first time in history, iconic trainers Peter Twist and Todd Durkin team up to share 40 years worth of combined success from lessons learned in the trenches.

They will fill you up with motivation and inspiration and share their top tips and methods to help you master your craft and ignite your life. Description Removing refined and processed sugar forms the basis of any sound nutrition and optimal wellness plan. It's also essential to help reset the organs that handle blood sugar and support any weight loss endeavours. With this four-week program, you can reboot your health, physique, and fitness results.

Striking visuals will have you thinking twice about the plates and glasses you use, as well as how accessible food is at home and work. Description This session brings together a unique group of extraordinary women whose passion, talent and determination have established them as extraordinary leaders and change agents. Description Because of the cardiovascular benefits it provides and the weight loss it can produce, running is one of the most common forms of exercise.

Emily explores the science of impact forces, pre-activation responses, and the muscle tuning theory. Learn how to reduce running-related injuries from a neuromuscular perspective. Description An extraordinary athletic challenge utilizing the WaterRower and battle ropes. Description Build your exercise library with a class-ready overall workout that provides practical examples of the concepts of breath, support, yield, and flow: Description Drawing where we left off in , we'll now explore practical ways to build mental muscle.

Three important aspects of age are our functional, social, and psychological ages, and this lecture explores how to maximize training these concepts. You'll gain practical applications of brain research to integrate neuroplasticity games into daily movement training programs for a healthy, happy, and productive brain.

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