Poultry Farming Business Plan Sample / Feasibility Studies
It took me about 3 months to find out that Synthroid was making me sicker. Ayurveda places a lot of emphasis of the care of the digestive system. This is supremely fascinating to me. Phlegm causes the patient to lose any desire for food. Maybe whatever makes me feel this way is more common in Europe?
The Big List of Nootropics
Cancer Research , Article: Omega-3 fatty acid and phenolic anti-oxidant interventions. Dash, Bhagwan and R. Prashanti de Jager, Article: According to Ayurveda, the traditional medicine of India, the digestive system is the physical root of most diseases in the body. In other words, as disease develops, its early signs are often seen as digestive problems. Gas, constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, and bloating are all considered to be warning signs of future problems that are more serious. If the digestive system is properly cared for, many diseases can be averted and diseases that are present have a better chance of healing.
Ayurveda places a lot of emphasis of the care of the digestive system. In doing so, Ayurveda addresses not only what food is best for an individual, but also how food is best eaten and how it is best combined. If proper food is taken in the proper manner, most digestive problems go away. For those that do not, Ayurveda utilizes herbs to normalize the function of the digestive system. How do you know if you have digestive problems that may cause future challenges?
Most of the signs are obvious. If you have gas, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, or cramping, then you have mild but important signs of imbalance. If you have been diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome, ulcers, ulcerative colitis, diverticulitis, or GIRD gastrointestinal reflux disorder , your challenges are more serious but can still be helped. The knowledge of Ayurveda is important to the correction of all digestive imbalances.
Proper digestion begins not with what you eat but how you eat it. Here are five simple but important guidelines to assure that your digestion is optimal.
Begin meals with a moment of relaxation or grace: When the body is relaxed and focused on the food, digestive enzyme secretion is maximized. Eat in a calm environment: When the mind is involved in drama and emotion, digestion is disturbed. Turn off the TV, don't discuss intense issues at the dinner table, and avoid eating while driving in the car.
Chew your food well: Digestion begins with chewing. Proper chewing allows enzymes in the saliva to begin the digestive process. Food should be chewed until it is an even consistency. Eat until you are satisfied, not until you are full: Overeating is one of the major causes of digestive upset and subsequent disease in Western countries.
The surest way to extend life for most people is to eat less. It is important to learn the difference between genuine hunger and the desire for pleasure through taste. Rest before going on to the next activity: For optimal digestion, it is important to rest after eating. Failure to rest means that the body's physiology will switch away from digestion and toward the activity of the muscles of the body.
This leaves poorly digested food in the digestive system. It is best to wait at least twenty minutes before going on to the next activity. Simply eating food properly will alleviate a lot of chronic digestive problems, thereby preventing more serious disease. When this is combined with a healthy diet, the effect is even more dramatic and almost all digestive problems disappear.
Ayurveda teaches that the best diet is the one that is proper for a person's constitution; their unique balance of body energies. People with a more vata nature, or those who suffer from constipation and gas, tend to need more cooked foods taken with some oil and spices, including salt.
It may come as a surprise to find that raw salads can cause more gas. Those with a more pitta nature, or those who suffer from burning indigestion and loose stools, need to eat more raw foods and take food that is less spicy and less oily. Deep fried foods are the worst food for people with pitta imbalances. Those with a kapha nature, or those who tend to feel heavy and sluggish and sometimes get nauseous after eating, require food that is dry, light and spicy. People with a kapha nature thrive as vegetarians.
What food should you eat? Ayurveda teaches that everyone is a unique individual. Nothing is right for everyone but everything is right for someone. Ayurveda is a path of finding out what is right for you. For the best personalized dietary plan, consult a Clinical Ayurvedic Specialist. In addition to supporting dietary and lifestyle changes, your Clinical Ayurvedic Specialist may design individualized herbal formulas to give your digestive system and the rest of your body its best chance of getting well.
Ayurveda is based on the belief that nothing is right for everyone and everything is right for someone. This belief comes from an understanding that each of us is unique. Simply put, each of us is biochemically different with different hormonal, enzyme, and neurotransmitter levels.
Each person reacts to the world in different ways. If we are all different, why would we even consider the idea that there must be one program of nutrition that is best for everyone? Where did the idea come from? The United States Department of Agriculture publishes daily recommended allowances of vitamins and minerals. The American Heart Association also publishes recommendations for the amount of fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy people should consume.
People routinely use these guidelines to see how they measure up. The problem with statistical models is that the average American is a myth found only in statistical research papers. In real life, individual needs can vary significantly. Meanwhile, current science is simply the best conclusion that can be made given available data. What is accepted as the truth today is often found to be wrong tomorrow. A good case in point is the intake of cholesterol.
While America has become obsessed with lowering cholesterol intake, studies published over the last couple of years in the prestigious British Medical Journal reveal that low cholesterol numbers, while protecting against cardiovascular disease, seem to increase the risk of certain cancers. What should a person do? There are many ideas on the bookshelves about how to eat and stay healthy.
New books and ideas are published every month. Ayurveda is a year old science that aims to help a person understand what is right for them as a unique individual. Those who do not receive enough are prone to anxiety, constipation, and sleeplessness among many other conditions. They need nourishing foods and often have difficulty maintaining a vegetarian diet. People of vata nature should avoid too many salads and fruits as well as beans and take in more grains, dairy and nuts.
Hot, spicy food is believed to lead to a greater incidence of skin rashes, liver weakness, and anger. Large salads are wonderful. If sweet, heavy, oily foods are taken in too great of a quantity it can lead to greater mucous accumulation as well as further weight gain and diabetes mellitus.
People with a kapha nature should avoid all sweets, dairy, nuts, and most grains such as wheat and rice. However, grains such as quinoa and millet can be taken.
Nothing is right for everyone, everything is right for someone. Cooked grains, butter, dairy, nuts, cooked vegetables.
Raw Salads, cooked grains, milk, seeds. Salads, cooked vegetables, spicy foods, quinoa, millet, corn flour and buckwheat. Raw salads, fruits, beans. Hot, Spicy foods, sour foods, deep fried foods, fermented foods such as yogurt and vinegar.
Dairy, meat, cheese, nuts, wheat and rice. Fats, the long time enemy of those who want to prevent heart disease, are getting a second look in light of new evidence that reveals that fats may play an important role in the prevention of some cancers.
Recent research published in the British Medical Journal has revealed that while low levels of fats protect us against heart disease, they may also increase our susceptibility to certain kinds of cancers. Another study revealed that milk fats contain substances protective toward our bodies which prevent some cancers from forming. In light of this new research, it is important that each person reassess their attitudes toward fats and oils. Each year it kills more than twice the number of people as all cancers combined.
Modern methods of nutrition have focused on the prevention of this group of diseases though diet and exercise. A diet low in saturated fats and cholesterol has been the cornerstone of prevention. Repeated studies have concluded that lower blood cholesterol levels and triglycerides circulating fats reduce the incidence of these conditions.
In addition, it has been shown that exercise also lowers their incidence in part through raising HDL and lowering LDL. HDL and LDL are often called good and bad fats; in fact they are proteins that carry fat within the body.
The new research showing that lower fat levels may increase the incidence of some cancers should not come as a great surprise. Fat has always been known to play an important role in the body, particularly in the production of all cell membranes, many hormones, the sheaths that surround nerves, and the oils that keep our skin healthy.
Those who receive too little fat in their diet are more likely to suffer from a multitude of conditions including hormonal imbalances, brittle hair and nails, dry skin, and Raynaud's disease cold, painful sensations in the fingers, toes, ears and nose due to vasospasm of the small vessels.
It would be wrong to conclude that fat is either absolutely good for us or absolutely bad for us. Perhaps this is why there has been so much confusion and disagreement among the experts. Effective arguments can be made for either point of view. Dean Ornate, MD, well received as an expert in nutrition, advocates very low fat diets as being optimal for preventing and reversing, heart disease.
Another recognized expert, Robert Atkins, MD, blames heart disease on high carbohydrate diets and advocates low carbohydrate, high protein diets.
He does not recommend restricting fat. Could both experts be right? Perhaps future research will try to answer an as yet, unasked question. Could higher levels of fat be good for some people and harmful for others? If so, who would fall into each category? Ayurveda i , the traditional healing system from India, is based upon the understanding that each person is an individual with unique nutritional needs.
Ayurveda teaches that those people of vata nature--who are lighter, thin boned, have narrow faces and thin, scanty hair, dry skin, and a nervous or anxious nature--benefit from extra fats and oils in their diet. In fact, according to Ayurveda, the oils reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease. Meanwhile, those of a more pitta nature--who have a moderate build, focused, intense, deep set eyes and early graying of the hair--and those of kapha nature--stocky, dense bones, short necks, round faces, generally calm and relaxed--become unhealthy when exposed to too much fat.
Those of a kapha nature are understood to be the most susceptible to traditional risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Increased body weight is a known risk factor of CVD and kapha individuals having a slower metabolism are often overweight.
With all of this conflicting information, what is a person to do? I am reminded of the wise words of the great Rishi mystic Patanjali in the Yoga Sutras. In summary he says, " Take them all in moderation. If you are very thin, do not fear fats, they are your friend. As Ayurveda teaches, they may reduce your risk of CVD and also of other conditions such as anxiety. It is best to take healthy fats from naturally occurring sources such as vegetable oils, nuts, milk and eggs.
Oils such as olive, sesame and ghee are the best as they are somewhat heavy oils. They have a moderate percentage of saturated fats and are high in mono-unsaturated fats. If you are heavy, reduce your intake of fats. Not only will they increase your risk of CVD but also of diabetes. If you do take oils, use polyunsaturated oils such as safflower, they are lighter. Everyone should avoid excessive un-natural fats such as those from deep fried foods and oils which are old and rancid.
For specific individualized dietary plans, see a Clinical Ayurvedic Specialist. And, remember, to further reduce your risk of cardiovascular, avoid smoking, exercise regularly, relax often, and have your blood pressure checked regularly. Beware of modern science. There is a tendency to leap into the current theories being promoted as though they express the whole truth. Modern science is outdated every ten years, replaced by newer, still incomplete information.
It was, after all, "modern science" that once told us that babies would thrive more on bottled milk than on breast milk, that the chemical DES was safe for pregnant woman, that marijuana has no useful medical value, and that you can safely lose weight by taking the drug fen-phen.
Modern science still tells us that pesticides in reasonable doses are safe. Use common sense and intuition. All great traditional healing sciences Native American, Ayurvedic, Chinese focus on principles of truth, based in spirit, tested though time and which stand eternal.
Moderation is the safest approach unless a person is guided by an expert in the field. Within the field of Western medicine, psychosis is viewed as a complex of visible symptoms and effects rather than as an indicator of a simple root cause. If the condition is left untreated, people can sometimes harm themselves or others.
Very little information can be found in Western medicine advocating either diet or lifestyle as a foundation of mental clarity or a cure for mental illness. What sorts of treatment methods are utilized by these two medical sciences in its management? The objective of this paper is aimed towards the exploration of and answers to these questions.
However, it was the relatively recent years of the 18th century that saw the seeds of modern psychiatry begin to sprout. Though the Ancient Greeks and Romans had progressive ideas regarding mental illness, the Middle Ages witnessed the end of such revelations.
The late 19th century advent of psychoanalysis led to increasingly enlightened exploration and treatment of mental illness. Insanity is no longer considered a medical diagnosis in the United States, although it is still a legal term. Psychotic disorders include schizophrenia an illness involving delusions, hallucinations, abnormal speech, and strange behavior and delusional disorder in which a person has a persistent belief that seems very real to him or her but is not shared by others.
For example, a behavior that may be seen as problematic in our society may be seen as normal within another society. In addition, the introduction of foreign chemicals into the body e. Electroconvulsive therapy also known as electric shock treatment may be applied if all other treatments prove ineffective. Additional treatment methods include early intervention in psychosis, a relatively new but effective concept based upon the observation that identifying and treating a person in the early stages of psychosis can significantly improve their long-term outcome.
Unmada is mada toxicity, disorder of the manas mind produced by the dosas vata, etc. Similarly, the Ayurvedic text Charaka Samhita defines insanity as the perversion of the mind, intellect, consciousness, knowledge, memory, desire, manners, behavior, and conduct.
As the quality of sattva becomes diminished within the mind, it is only a matter of time before imbalances appear within the three biological humors: In his book, Ayurveda and the Mind: The Healing of Consciousness, Dr. They are not so much personal or moral failings as an inability to harmonize the forces within us. These include one for each dosha Vatonmada, Pittonmada, Kaphonmada , one for a combination of all three doshas Sannipatonmada , one due to mental shock Citta Ghataja Unmada and one caused by poisons Visaja Unmada .
According to Ayurveda, the mind, or manas as it is known in Sanskrit, is composed primarily of the air and ether elements. Thus, of the three doshas vata is commonly behind most psychological disorders.
Excess air within the mind causes mental instability and agitation, which leads to excessive thinking, worrying, and ultimately the perception that our problems are much worse than they really are. We are prone to premature or inappropriate action that may aggravate our problems. Pitta-type psychological disturbances occur moderately, as pitta tends to have strong self-control. Excess aggression and hostility are the root cause behind most pitta-type psychological disorders.
Problems can arise, however, when vitiated kapha produces blocked channels and clouded senses. Excess kapha within the mind causes mental dullness, congestion and poor perception.
According to Frawley, Ayurveda sees the deluded mind as a condition dominated by the quality of tamas or darkness. The mind is absorbed in a blank state in which consciousness of the body is obscured or lost; it is a mindless, non-feeling state of inertia: The quality of tamas generally dominates within the schizophrenic mind as well. In this condition, a person goes into trances, sees hallucinations, hears voices, etc. They may include psychic abilities or psychic sensitivities but are beyond the control of the person.
The person may connect up to the astral plane and lose contact with physical realities. In these cases, the mind goes into an absorption of the dull or blank type and sometimes an astral entity comes in to use the mind.
Interestingly, according to Frawley all severe mental derangement involves some type of astral entity possession or influence. In the circumstances…the mind gets seriously affected and the intellect loses its balance. So the doshas aggravated and vitiated enter the cardiac region, obstruct the channels of the mind resulting in insanity.
Furthermore, the text cautions against the disharmonious acts of Prajnaparadha intellectual blasphemy, the failure of the intellect, or crimes against wisdom p. In Ayurveda two types of insanity are described: Insanity due to exogenous conditions are caused by injuries, poison, fire, and wind. Lord Punarvasu Atreya considers intellectual blasphemy as the Nidana causative factors of this condition.
As the dominant dosha within the mind, vata-type psychological disturbances occur most commonly. Fasting, irregular eating habits or insufficient food, and the excessive intake of dry, cold foods easily weaken and upset the vata-dominated mind. Drugs and stimulants easily derange them…Excessive or unnatural sexual activity quickly drains their often low energy.
Stress, fear and anxiety affect them emotionally because they lack calm and endurance. Violence and trauma leaves them hurt and withdrawn.
Neglect or abuse as a child creates a predisposition for a Vata-deranged psychology. Overly hot, spicy foods easily disturb the pitta mind. Strong, bright colors and sensations irritate their senses. Exposure to violence and aggression increase similar attitudes within them. Sexual frustration, excessive anger and ambition often cause problems as well. Excess pleasure, enjoyment, attachment, too much sleep, sleep during the day, and lack of exercise add to the potential of a psychological disturbance within the kapha-type individual.
Educational factors include being overly indulged as a child or emotionally smothered by parents. Excess vata within the mind causes the individual to become ungrounded and unrealistic, producing overactive and wrong imaginations, hallucinations and delusions. Over activity of the mind results in dispersed life-force energy prana , leaving the afflicted weak, with a diminished connection to the physical body and physical reality.
Vata-type psychological disorders are behind feelings of fear, alienation, anxiety, and nervous breakdowns. Insomnia, tremors, palpitations, unrest, and rapid shifts in mood are due to vata as well. Excess pitta heat within the mind produces agitation, irritation, anger, and possible violence. Pitta types can become domineering, authoritarian or fanatic. When disturbed they may have paranoid delusions, delusions of grandeur, or can becomes psychotic.
Excess kapha in the mind results in over-attachment and lack in motivation and mental drive that often leads to depression, sorrow, and excessive clinging.
Stronger kapha types may find themselves suffering from greed and possessiveness, which renders the mind heavy, dull and depressed. They want to own and control everything, but when control and ownership are lost psychological instability results.
In Sannipatonmada insanity caused by the combination of all three doshas , the Ashtanga Hridayam notes that symptoms attributed to all of the doshas appear simultaneously. The text cautions against the treatment of these patients, as this type of insanity is often too difficult to cure. The person becomes pale, timid, faints often, weeps making sounds such ha, ha etc.
Visaja Unmada is insanity caused by poisons. In this type of insanity it is said that the face turns blue, the eyes become red, there is a loss of healthy complexion, strength, physical senses, and the mind is unstable even throughout the different stages of poisoning. Again, the patient who presents with this condition is seen as too difficult to cure and should be rejected by the physician.
Physical diseases and mental diseases are caused by the irrevelevent contacts, intellectual blaspheme and suppression of natural urges. In Ayurveda the primary treatment goal of all psychological illness is the cultivation of sattva, as this is the quality that brings balance to body and clarity to the mind.
Sattvic activities include spending more time in nature, meditation, yoga, avoiding the influence of the media, and the consumption of a sattvic diet.
Internal and external oleation therapies are the cornerstone of treatment in vata-type insanity. Should the moist, heavy qualities inherent within the oil induce channel obstruction, Vagbhata recommends mixing mild purgatives with the therapeutic oils being used. Numerous vata-reducing impressions may be applied, as they help bring peace and stability to the vata-deranged mind.
Such impressions include sitting or walking quietly and peacefully in a garden, listening to calming music, and gentle exercise such as Hatha Yoga or Tai Chi. For pitta-type insanity, emesis, purgation, and enema therapies administered after oleation and sudation should be administered. Purgative therapy for the head is also recommended. Pitta-reducing impressions include the use of cooling colors blue, white, silver , cool, sweet fragrances like rose and sandalwood, and the use of pitta-pacifying mantras such as Shrim and Sham.
Similar to the treatment of pitta-type insanity, kapha-type insanity also calls for emesis, purgation, and enema therapies administered after oleation and sudation, including purgative therapy for the head. Kapha benefits immensely from strong aerobic exercise, cultivating of detachment, and meditation on active, wrathful deities like Kali or Rudra.
In the treatment of insanity due to lust, grief, fear, anger, joy, jealousy, and greed i. Lust should be met with dislike, grief with delight, fear with faith, etc. Patients suffering from insanity due to loss should be given that which is identical to what was bereaved, along with assurances and consoling words. Should the above therapies prove ineffective, alternate recommendations are described in the Ashtanga Hridayam that, while outdated, are interesting to take note of.
Vagbhata also recommends beating the patient with lashes, binding the patient, throwing the patient into a ravine, and confining the patient in a dark room free from weapons, stones, and men. The result of such therapies, he says, is the notion that the fear of death is more powerful than the troubles of the body, thus the disturbed mind becomes free of its abnormalities. The mental condition known insanity is well known to describe a mentally unstable person.
Insanity is a disease that has been common throughout history within every culture of the world, invoking diverse views of understanding and the development of numerous treatment methods. The Western approach to mental illness appears to be primarily concerned with the complicated, minute details of brain chemistry in its quest to understand the logistics of mental disease.
The Western tendency is to concentrate on specific aspects of sensory impressions and brain lobes and the effect of various forms of multiple neurotransmitters and hormones within the body. On the other hand, the condition of mental illness is a much more accepted, explored, and understood concept within Ayurveda and Eastern medicine in general. Whereas Western medicine scrutinizes the minute, Ayurveda is much more concerned with the bigger, simpler picture of humoral and energetic imbalances, which it sees as a physical manifestation of karma that allows for the teaching of spiritual lessons.
Charaka, perhaps, speculates that the avoidance of disease and conservation of health is even more simple: National Library of Medicine, 7 Feb Principles of Ayurvedic Medicine. California College of Ayurveda, American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Interview by David Shankbone, 5 October Birchwood, M, and P Trower. Haddock, G and S Lewis. The Critical Period Hypothesis".
British Journal of Psychiatry. French, Paul, Anthony Morrison. John Wiley and Sons, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Swami Sada Shiva Tirtha. Ayurveda Holistic Center Press, Ayurveda and the Mind: The Healing of Consciousness. Dash, Bhagwan and RK Sharma. Ayurvedic and Allopathic Medicine and Mental Health: The Roots of Ayurveda.
It promotes physical health and healing of the mind through diverse methods focused on treating all the physical, psychological, and spiritual aspects of each individual affected with physical and mental disorders.
According to the National Institute of Mental Health, approximately 2. Schizophrenia is found all over the world, in all races, cultures and social classes. It affects 1 out of people worldwide. More than 2 million Americans suffer from the illness in a given year and one out of every 10 people with schizophrenia commits suicide. This assumption is, unfortunately, not true.
Suicide rates among people with schizophrenia are alarmingly high; in fact, suicide is the number one cause of premature death. Ten to thirteen percent kill themselves, and close to fifty percent attempt suicide at some point in their lives. Keefe, H arvey, Schizophrenia has been considered one of the most chronic, disabling, and difficult to understand of the mental disorders since ancient times.
People with this illness suffer with a loss of individual potential and personal anguish, resulting in significant psychological and social consequences. People with schizophrenia suffer terrifying symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and distorted perceptions of reality, disordered thinking, lack of emotional expression and communication problems.
This often leaves them fearful, anxious, confused, and withdrawn for the rest of their lives. A wide range of reason or events can and might lead some people to run a risk for suicide, although this risk may be higher for individuals with schizophrenia. The underlying causes are the same for those who are afflicted with this disease.
Due to those reasons listed above, schizophrenia is considered a devastating disorder like no other, causing pervasive and profound social, economic and personal impact on those afflicted.
Most of the people with schizophrenia continue to suffer chronically or episodically throughout their lives.
It has been estimated that no more than one in five individuals recover completely. Why is schizophrenia still considered one of the most fearsome and disabling mental disorders? What is the Ayurvedic interpretation of schizophrenia and mental illness?
And, what Ayurvedic treatments are available for people suffering with mental illness? These are just a few questions that will be answered in the following pages. According to Western Psychiatry, Schizophrenia is not a split personality condition, but a chronic relapsing psychotic disorder that primarily affects thought and behavior.
DSM-IV criteria identify five subtypes of schizophrenia: Paranoid type, disorganized type, Catatonic type, undifferentiated type, and Residual type. All of these vary by their degree of severity and symptomatology.
As noted by Dr. Halpern, Ayurvedic medicine offers the opportunity to understand the nature of the mind in a way that is completely unique and quite different from the variety of the Western Psychological and Psychiatric medicine models. According to Ayurveda and occult science, behind the gross physical is a subtle or astral body composed of the life-force, emotions and thoughts.
The astral is a subtle form or underlying energy pattern of the physical, from which the physical is produced 3. Moving in the wrong paths due to increased toxicity. Swami Sada Shiva Tirtha, The real causes of schizophrenia are unfortunately not known, however, there are several theories and hypotheses of the etiology of schizophrenia.
Western scientists and psychologists do not yet understand all the factors that produce schizophrenia. An interaction of sociological, biological, and psychological factors seems to contribute to the condition. One of the more influential views of the origins of schizophrenia is the theory of biochemical and brain dysfunction.
The two most likely candidates are biochemical abnormalities and abnormal brain structure. This hypothesis revolves around the idea that schizophrenic symptoms might be the result of overactivity of a neurotransmitter called dopamine.
This theory is supported by the fact that drugs, which increase dopamine activity, can bring about a worsening of psychotic symptoms. The treatment methods for schizophrenia with this biological view are based on clinical research and experience. Antipsychotic drugs appear to be the best treatment now available, but they do not cure schizophrenia or ensure that there will be no further psychotic episodes.
The antipsychotic drugs include two major classes: Genetic theories state that biology produces schizophrenia and environment alters its course.
More specifically, genetic and other biological factors create various degrees of vulnerability to schizophrenia. Absentee farming is hazardous.
Someone with stake in the venture should give quality time to it to survive. The poultry will provide employment in the first year for at lease two persons.
By five years at full capacity it would employ about 14 persons. Contractors and suppliers should also benefit. Nationally, it will reduce cash flight or lost in Forex and generate about N17 million per annum in revenue. The banks, insurance companies and Agricultural consulting firms shall all be beneficiaries with the attendant tax going to the government. The investors shall also have find a means of expressing their entrepreneurial skill. The manure will service proximal farms and far farms.
Egg marketers, maize or feed suppliers, transporters, spent birds marketers etc shall all be affected positively. The impact on the economy will be positive. Mix disinfectant and pour at the entrances.
Change into work cloth and foot wears. Soak their legs with the disinfectant as well as wash hand with same. Each nest is observed for discomfort birds sick or dead. Such animals are then culled and recorded. Water is checked each Tip is tested to ensure normal flow. Blocked Tips are cleaned or replaced. Feed already measured is given to the birds by evenly pouring them into the trough. Eggs are packed from the cage using basket or directly into the crates.
Record is taken; this shall include number of morbidity, number of mortality, number of eggs, abnormal observation on feaces or in the pen etc.
The eggs now packed in crates, are taken to the store room for onward transport out to the city facility. Attendants shall and should be housed in the farm or in close proximity for the sake of emergency such as insect attack, late feeding, brooding and security. A shop within the town shall serve the ware house feed and as depot for the produced eggs. Feeds from the company will be truck load. Sales to other farmers will generate additional income and provide the farm with reduce cost.
When buyers buy from the farm egg outlet, it reduces visitation to farm which has attendant risk of break of security and biosecurity. Following the completion of physical structures, Semi-automatic battery cages of premium quality will be purchased and installed in for 2, capacity pen.
The birds will be purchased at 14 weeks age and hence will take 6 weeks to come to lay. They should peak by age week 30 when they are 17 weeks In the farm and spent by week 70 weeks and thereafter sold as Old Layers. Within one month, the Spent Layers should have been sold out. Foot bath for visitors and workers will be put in place at the entrances.
Every vehicle coming into the facility will also pass through a bath and get sprayed. All quality control standards will be adhered to strictly so as to produce a world class standard.
Animals and materials will be kept away from the poultry pens. Biosecurity training will be mandatory given to attendants and other staff.
The current prices and sources of these inputs as stated below are safe, dependable and readily available. Plan to utilize Vital feed from UAC plc. Mr Poultry shall employ a Marketer at full capacity. These customers will be allocated dates. They either pick up the eggs from the farm on their dates or have it delivered with the farm van at a price.
All customers shall only be given allocation with a confirmation of a bank payment. To expand the clientele base, advert will be placed on different fora online. The revenue projection for the first year in lay is in the figure of N9 to N Positive net cash balances are realized at the end of second laying year.
From the projection, the farm shows profitability. Mr Poultry farm shall be a success. Poultry Farming is a highly developed industry. Its efficacy and productivity is a product of bringing together of all the available industrial facilities, this can never be provided enough by just one individual or company, hence Mr Poultry plan to collaborate with investors and experts. The industry works effectively as a network with different specialisation, bringing in diverse inputs. Also, to avoid overcrowding of ideas and thinning of the limited resources, focus will be on egg production for a long time under the supervision of an experienced consulting firm.
Success is granted, God being by our side. Lagos is a large market and strategically located to expand and serve the rest of the nation and beyond. Poultry farming is one the wisest decision any investor interested in farming business can make. With the right information and technical know how, you can start your own poultry farm and make millions annually.
This agriculture investment idea is so lucrative that it attract a wide range of people from different walks of life and especially retirees.
You should understand that learning how to become a chicken farmer requires dedication. Asides this, poultry products and byproducts such as eggs, feathers, dung, offals are source of income for people who consume or use them as raw materials in industries. A broiler is produced for meat. It matures fast and can attain average weight of If your production is targeted at festive season especially Christmas, please go for this.
Broiler farmers make money from chicken meat for sale in Nigeria. Cockerels are also produced for meet. Poultry egg production in Nigeria involves the raising of pullets which produces eggs that is made available for sales.
Take note that this eggs are normally infertile. Most layers start laying at around weeks and can lay for up to a year and a half when they are sold off as old spent layers. Eggs from breeder birds are incubated in hatcheries and eggs hatch to produces day old chick that can grow into either pullets layers or broiler birds.
This is where you build your pen. Make sure you look for a piece of land far from residential quarters. Odour from poultry waste can cause issues between you and your neighbors. Ensure the land topography is flat and the soil is not too muddy or rocky. When building your poultry pen, make sure you consult a seasoned specialist. This is because a single mistake in poultry housing design can destroy your investment. There are different designs available depending on the type of poultry production you are interested in.
Poultry pen should be constructed along the East-West horizon. This will ensure that your pen does not suffer long duration of high temperature during the day. Constructing against the wind may result in too low temperature and the rapid spread of formites that may transmit diseases.
Correct stocking density in battery cage and deep litter system is important as this prevent overcrowding which can lead to tramping, increased competition for food and water, suffocation, pecking and rapid spread of disease. I always recommend that Poultry farmers start small.
This is because along the line you can learn from your mistakes. Even though it is safe to start with some weeks old broiler birds and point of lay as a newbie, it is better to learn how to brood yourself.
Cost of poultry feeding carries a major share of your total cost of production. Before you dive into this investment, it is good that you calculate and project the funds needed to feed your birds till when they are ready for the market. For instance at adult stage, birds will finish one 25kg bag of feed daily. Adequate planning will not make you get stranded and end up starving your birds.
Feeding good quality poultry feeds and clean water is important to the growth and health of your birds. Formulation of poultry feed can help lower cost associated with high price of ready-made feeds.
If you can get a very good poultry feed formula as well as a standard poultry feed mill that does not use adulterated poultry feed ingredients, you are good to go. It is important that you get adequate number of drinkers and feeders for your birds. The height of these containers must not pose stress to them. In battery cage system, make sure you examine nipples routinely to ensure that none is blocked, clean feeder trays and drinker pipers regularly. Observe your birds frequently for any diseases signs.
Maintaining strict biosecurity and hygiene on your poultry farm will go a long way in protecting your birds against infection.
Provide a foot dip and limit visitors to your farm. Make sure farm hands and equipment are not rotated carelessly among your pen. Spray tires of vehicles coming into your farm. Ensure prompt removal of poultry dung as this can serve as source of bacterial growth and ammonia gas generation on your poultry farm.
Vaccination is also very vital. It should be given as at when due to protect your flock against endemic diseases. You need to put in place effective marketing strategy to succeed in poultry farming business. Extensive market survey will influence how large you want to produce so you can easily sell off your poultry birds and products. Ensure you grow a huge list of middlemen who will help distribute your produce in case one disappoints you.
Source for outlets for your broiler birds such as eateries before you commence production at all. The profitability of broiler production in Nigeria is undeniable. If your are going into layers production, take your time to conduct intensive feasibility study on poultry egg production business in Nigeria. Record keeping is a core essential to make it big and easily to assess the profitability of your poultry business.
Keeping records will help guard against pilfering and theft on your poultry farm. You can easily know when there is problem with bird performance from indices such as daily number of crates produced and average boiler weight gain.
The importance of writing a business plan for your new or existing poultry business can never be underestimated. It will give you more clarity about your farm and can be used to attract investors or to apply for a loan or grant. Unless you have your intentions for your poultry business written down, you might miss an opportunity to communicate it to someone else or even to clarify things for yourself. Most emerging poultry farmers will have to make use of loans or grants when starting their business.
In order to access these, you will need to write a business plan and submit it to your prospective financier or grant officer. A poultry farming business plan is a basic outline of what your farm is all about.
It must serve as an action plan and guideline for you to use on a daily basis. The essence of it is to act as a roadmap to your desired destination. Be practical when writing it. There are several key elements to be discussed in a business plan for poultry farming. They are as follows:. Write a summary of what your poultry farm is all about. What will you be producing on the farm and why is it going to work? Your executive summary is an introduction to the rest of your business plan — keep it short and mention the strong points of your plan.
This section should answer the question of what you want to achieve in terms of income, turnover, profits and percentages—some achievable thing. It is important to be clear and realistic about your goals. Make them achievable and set your mind to achieving them. Make sure this summary is in line with your mission and goals. By answering this question you will force yourself to be specific about what your business will be doing and how you will be doing it.
Write it in less than words. This is the most important section of your poultry production business plan. Investors and grant officers will analyze and examine your financial info. Be specific about how much money you will need to get started, where you will spend the funds, how long it will take to start becoming profitable, how big your potential egg or meat market is and what your running costs will be.
The key is to show a potential investor that you will be able to make a financial success of your poultry farm and be profitable. The Poultry Farm Marketing Plan. How are you going to sell your eggs, broilers or spent layers and how are people going to hear about it? How will you promote your products? What marketing channels will you use? Be as creative as possible when looking at various marketing channels. Your introduction sets the tone for writing your poultry farming business plan and should clearly state the reasons why you are starting this line of agribusiness.
Whenever a poultry business plan is being written, it is meant to satisfy or serve two major reasons. First, it is to serve as a clear blueprint for your poultry business. What it means in essence is that it will continue serving as a guide to help you implement all the plans contained in this business during the duration of the broiler or chicken egg production venture.
Also, the poultry farming business plan is a basic requirement for applying for funding or loans from investors. This sample poultry farm project proposal is required to measure how sound and viable the business idea is. The contents of your poultry business plan will determine if you eventually access these loans. Writing your business plan will require proper research and dedication.
When writing your poultry business plan, you should not rush the process. As the name implies, this section summarizes the contents of your poultry farming business.
This section should be concise and straightforward and should not contain ambiguous words or phrases. This normally comes at the end of the plan to offer a better perspective to the reader. There should always be supporting documents to back up claims made in the executive summary of a poultry farming business plan. These documents should be included in the supporting documents section. These would typically consist of estimates provided by suppliers, marketing results as well as purchase orders.
A critical part of this section is to clearly present ways of repayment of loans and interest to the investor. This will largely determine if you win the loan request or not. This section of the business plan covers details of your poultry business.
Before getting into the details, a summary usually one page long should be provided here. This section of the poultry farming business plan has several sub-sections that each expand on various aspects of the business. Selecting a suitable legal structure for your poultry business is necessary. Thus you need to provide reasons why you chose a particular legal structure. This should be backed by documentations relating to any of the chosen business structures in the supporting documents section of a sample business plan for poultry farm.
Any structure you choose should have a defined profit sharing method as well as clear responsibilities relating to financial losses relating to you in terms of sole proprietorship or between partners under partnership agreements. Change is constant in poultry business, therefore you may decide to change your legal structure in future.
If you have such plans for your poultry farm business, it should have a timeline as well as provide reasons for such changes. You will need to clearly give details about your chicken farm and provide reasons why you established the poultry business, how much is need to fully run the business, where the farm will be located, your target market, as well as any other relevant information regarding your poultry farming business.
A poultry egg farming business plan will be described differently from a broiler production plan. In this case, these are your birds and any other related services you may choose to offer. After you try the latest edition to the racetam-family of nootropics. And links through to more detailed articles for each category. Get "Secrets of the Optimized Brain," pages to help you plan your Nootropic Stack when you sign up for updates:.
David has been researching nootropics and brain optimization for over 10 years. When he's not writing about nootropics, he's travelling the world 45 countries so far , sailing, diving, studying neuroscience or sitting under an umbrella on Miami Beach. Have you heard of sluggish cognitive tempo? He is not disorganized, just lacks talking and getting any feelings out and has had bad anxiety as well since high school-he used to get tics and bad acne…both subsiding at age 22 finally…any suggestions?
I think to self medicate…. It does sound a lot like inattentive ADD. But the more I research nootropics and cognitive health, the more I realize that every one of us is different. MindLab Pro is a good choice, and the best pre-made nootropic stack on the market today in my opinion. Nor does it use what it does produce efficiently it seems.
One thing that may help you is Rhodiola Rosea. There is some in MindLab Pro, but in this case it may not be enough to reduce the anxiety symptoms. I also use a number of other nootropics as well. Add to that cups of green tea during the day. And tablespoons of MCT oil from coconut oil. Experimentation is the only way to find out what will work best. Have you researched any of the nootropics for this unfortunate illness? If you have can you help me out? I use L-Tyrosine perhaps is not enough.
Let me know if this is a good balance. The Cleveland Clinic says you can dose L-Theanine up to 1, mg per day. Huperzine-A may be a good choice but please carefully read the dosage notes about cycling this nootropic. And while Vinpocetine is currently easier to get than Picamilon here in the USA not sure about Canada , Picamilon may be a better option for your situation.
For L-Tyrosine, you can dose up to 2 grams per day. Then click through to the review on each nootropic on that page. I am learning so much from your site. Except I am still not sure what would be best to take for an interview. I also have autoimmune and it cause lots of brain fog and fatigue, which gets worse during interviews. I need something to relax me, but not make me sleepy! Something for verbal fluency and quick thinking, focus, and alertness would be awesome!
I have been trying Ashwagandha for a few days, but not sure if I feel right on it. Especially the part about its effect on the immune system and thyroid. This may not be the nootropic for you. Particularly the side effects and dosage recommendations. Other suggestions are Aniracetam, magnesium, Rhodiola Rosea, and a high quality B-Vitamin complex that includes folate not folic acid and B12 — methylcobalamin not cobalamin.
I noticed you have hypothyroid. I have autoimmune hashimotos, which results in hypothyroid. Curious what you take for that.. Also one of the reasons I started Nootropics Expert. Because being hypothyroid took my brain offline. Nootropics turned my life around degrees. Dosed throughout the day. My doc put me on Alpha Lipoic Acid for insulin resistance a couple of months ago. And that messes with my thyroid meds.
It took me about 3 months to find out that Synthroid was making me sicker. It took another 3 years to get my body back into good enough shape using natural desiccated thyroid to start thinking about fixing my brain. I just received my Phenibut and LTheanine. I plan on trying Phenibut tomorrow as a test without taking anything else.
I plan on using L-Theanine on a regular basis with my daily supplements. I get it with the Thyroid question…it was more out of curiosity. I refused all Thyroid Meds from the Doc.. My TSH is under 4, so trying to get it down between I will keep trying different things till it happens! You can send your blood test results to life extension magazine ànd put on the envelope lab review and one of their specialists will go over your blood work with you.
I got to talk with a naturopath Dr one to e for over an hour a e they love to help people. In searching the internet for information on Nootropics, your website really stands out. Do you know of one that will help with these problems? I have this problem along with my 10 year old Son. Disrupting that natural development is a dangerous thing to do. So proceed with caution with any nootropics. And finally, you may want to consider Mind Lab Pro.
So please search NootropicsExpert. Hi David,honestly this is extremely comprehensive website that i have seen. Is there any supplement that can help? Kaveh, racing thoughts could be caused by an imbalance of glutamine and glutamate in your brain. So my first suggestion is to try supplementing with L-Glutamine to see if that helps. Please read the reviews on each of these here on Nootropics Expert. Picamilon will be up in the next couple of weeks. This is a great site, and filled with valuable information.
Thanks for all the fantastic advice and in depth articles. As a nootropic newbie, looking to try to get more focus and motivation in life generally I do not sleep well and my mind is all over the place, might even be ADHD I was looking for a nootropic to assist.
I started with this and did see some slight increase in focus, but my mind was still all over the place. The FLModafinil did cause some nausea but nothing unbearable.
However, I did get an urge to sleep after a few hours and sometimes immediately after taking it especially if I was notworking or doing anything. Having said this, what stack would you recommend me to start with to gain value from nootropics? I am just very confused with the vast amount of nootropics on the market. I am happy to start small. Ash, great questions and I have a couple of suggestions. Your reaction to FL Modafinil is interesting. One of the neurotransmitters it affects is histamine which you could have a problem with.
But it would take much more research on your part to learn exactly how FL Modafinil works in your brain. According to the labels on Neuroactive Day and Neuroactive Night, the doses in some of the ingredients are much below therapeutic doses to provide much benefit. And why you get only some benefit from using them. I suggest you take a close look at my favorite pre-made stack called Mind Lab Pro. And thousands of other neurohackers as well. And they do ship to South Africa. Dear David, Along with each mg of berberine, how many mg.
Sincerely, Phill Phoenix, Arizona. Phill, one study found that mg of Silymarin with 1, mg of Berberine was most effective. Silymarin is one of the active compounds in Milk Thistle. Thanks so much for the in depth response. I am still in awe of how you personally respond to each message you receive.
For now mind lab pro is a little pricey for me. Having read a few of your articles, and others online I am considering moving to racetams. I have heard good things about Noopept and Aniracetam. I think the Alpha GPC is to absorb the racetams?! Theanine and caffeine probably test it seperately and Lions Mane for the repair function.
I was basically reading articles on this website and others and adding what was available to my cart. No idea how much of each to take at 1st, or how to combine if I should. Can you maybe provide some of your advice on what will be good to start with and what not based on the above? Also, probably would prefer starting and testing individually before stacking. Ash, you can use everything you currently have on your list as long as you follow the dosage instructions closely.
Dosage instructions are explained in detail on each review page here on Nootropics Expert. Always start with the lowest recommended dose and see how your body reacts.
Aniracetam and Noopept both affect acetylcholine use in your brain. So you must provide your brain with a precursor to make sufficient acetylcholine for these nootropics to work effectively.
Caffeine should be taken with L-Theanine to prevent the jitters that often come with caffeine use. Again, this is explained in detail in the L-Theanine review. One more thing about dosing: But always start with the lowest therapeutic dose to see how you react!
I appreciate your compliments on Nootropics Expert. Dear David, great website and a wealth of good knowledge. I was wondering I have just started taking mind lab pro; which I have read a great deal about along with great reviews. I take ciprilex antidepressents for many years. I still feel very flat sometimes..
I eat healthy and walk a lot. Oliver, depending on the person, it may take anywhere from 1 — 3 weeks to experience the full effects provided by Mind Lab Pro. But this SSRI very much complicates correcting the motivation issues you mention.
Cipralex prevents the reuptake of serotonin in your brain. And has an effect on at least one of the serotonin transporters. Meaning you have more serotonin available. Because the synthesis of both serotonin and dopamine depend on the same enzyme. I think everyone should be supplementing with iodine and selenium to support thyroid health. Given your age and you are male, you may want to get a full testosterone panel done including estradiol.
Also a full thyroid panel and learn how to read your own lab results. I know because it took me almost 5 years. But it was worth the journey.
Nootropics saved my life and things are better now than ever for me. So please continue your research and do not be afraid to cautiously experiment.
Can you give me some peer-reviewed medical journal websites that you use to get some of your information? Do you use pubmed? Also, what are your thoughts about probiotic use? Good luck with your psychiatrist. The pharmaceuticals dictate what is taught to young doctors. And of course are only exposed to pharmaceuticals to treat disease.
Most doctors are much too busy or simply do not have any interest in thinking outside the box. But I do not want to go down the political, moral or ethical road with Nootropics Expert. I was reading through this website and wanted to try some supplements but not sure if it works well with the concerta.
I live in Finland so getting mind lab pro is not possible so as to any of the racetam family. Currently, i am taking zink 15mg , magnesium mg and omega 3 with very high epa ratio to dha. Zabe, you are on the right track with what you are currently doing with your stack. Look through the ingredients list in Mind Lab Pro for ideas on how to make your stack better. For example, get a nootropic supplement that increases cerebral blood flow. Something like Vinpocetine or Pine Bark Extract.
Add a high quality, bio-available B-Complex formula to your stack because you need the B-Vitamins to synthesize neurotransmitters.
And you should also consider adding a tablespoon of high quality fat to your stack. Preferably cold-pressed, unrefined coconut oil or olive oil. You need this fat to help deliver some of the fat-soluble nootropics you are using. Check the review on each here on Nootropics Expert to learn which are fat-soluble.
Thank you a lot a David. I will definitely buy the DHA mg and the high quality fat Also high standards bit B and the other supplements you suggested. I make my own capsule for several nootropics I use. As for racetams, what are you trying to achieve? The most popular racetams are Aniracetam, Piracetam, Oxiracetam, and Phenylpiracetam. But each have their own characteristics and benefit that each provides. He struggles with anxiety and mild depression as well as social anxiety.
I have him talking the Calm Now blend off Amazon as well as a raw organic multi B vitamin blend and ashwaganda. For my husband, he struggles with mild ADD — undiagnosed, but he has a short attention span and has headaches. Third is my friend — she was diagnosed with bipolar and ADD. She takes pharmaceuticals, but would like to get away from them.
For myself, I am 39, and I use to have a very sharp mind. From the extreme stress of the last 2 years fighting in court over my children and other things — my memory is now just awful. I most likely have some PTSD and extreme stress etc. I have tried a few Neuro blends. My short term memory is awful and I have trouble with recall of my long term memories also.
I can focus alright. My main issue is memory. But it will take some trial and error and a lot of patience.
Because each of us is different. Including your son, husband, friend and you. But a strong word of caution. Each of the nootropic stacks suggested has links through to full reviews for each of those supplements. Some of these can be extremely dangerous. And you must heed the warnings. Because very bad things can happen.
It took me several years before I finally found that sweet spot where I felt good again. In fact, better than I have in a long, long time. But it took a lot of experimenting. David, Terrific website and information. Your insight and research are inspiring and appreciated. Have you checked out the post I wrote on nootropics and ADD?
You may get some ideas on how to support what you are currently using. And get better results. If you would like, I will compile and type one for you. Where is that, please? Helen, nootropics literally saved my life not too long ago.
Nootropics Expert is my way of giving back and hopefully help someone else turn their life around. This site is a constant work in progress and I have some web-design geniuses working on a site update for early An index of some kind may be the answer. For now however, to search the hundreds of pages here on NootropicsExpert. Is that price justified? Altho I am complaining gingerly because my mood is definitely on the upswing. NTL, do you really think it would be more expensive to buy the ingredients separately?
Helen, Mind Lab Pro is a day supply and not Unless of course you get the discounted 3-month supply. From your experience, Should I take them at the same time or would they work better taken separately through out the day? Mike, those 4 nootropics all support each other so there is no harm in taking them together. And for all the nootropics you are going to try please follow the dosage recommendations closely for best results.
I really am grateful for the immense amount of effort that you gone to in organizing all of the information in one place. I have been studying it for a couple of weeks with great relish.
I am a 71 year old man who has been interested in these areas of supplementation for the last 20 years. I have recently been looking for more information on pregnenolone without too much success and was wondering if you have explored this substance. I am also wondering if you have a recommend stack with spiritual clarity and focus as a goal?
I personally use progesterone on the advice of my doctor. But it may now go on my list. My story begins with a mercury toxicity test result of Ended up with acute pain and perscribed high dose opiates for a decade.
Currently off Fentanyl 15 weeks, replaced by monthly buphronephrine injections, as part of a clinical trial. Is working wonders, no pain. However, the past 3 years my cognitive dysfunction has declined to the point of losing my business, my home, am in financial ruin. That this will cure me of my cognitive issues! I KNOW being in acute pain again will not help at all. They will not perscribe Ritalin — a mental health care facility, what a joke! Debbie, it is difficult for me to recommend any particular doctor who specializes in ADD.
I was fortunate that once I was diagnosed 10 years ago and started on Ritalin I was able to switch docs as needed. Try subscribing to this mag and see if you can get someone to point you in the right direction: Without a doubt I know it was using Mind Lab Pro as my base and building from there I was able to pull that off. I avoid antidepressants like the plague.
They will absolutely make your situation worse. While I believe prescription antidepressants may have their place for a fortunate few, most will have better luck using the right nootropic supplements. Please get your thyroid levels checked out too. This area of healthcare needs to be managed by you because I have not yet met an endocrinologist who gets it.
Spend some time reading https: Then find a naturopath or functional medicine doc who will work with to order the right labs. But use the thyroid site to learn how to read the labs yourself. It sounds like you are on the right track.
It took me 3 solid years of experimenting and healing before I was functional again. The first couple of chapters will encourage you to continue what you are doing. And the rest of the book will help you focus on each of the issues you are dealing with. Thank you so much for this invaluable site. I started with nootropics a year ago with Neuro1 which I acquired a large volume of from a liquidator for next to nothing.
My supply has run out, and rather than pay the price premium for that product, I decided to get serious about my nootropics and roll my own. Prior to workouts, I also add the following: Most of this stuff was bulk powder rather than capsules, and to get it down I heat 1Tbs of extra virgin coconut oil in the microwave till it liquifies, then mix in the powder and down the shot.
I had planned to add R-ALA, but the batch I received had polymerized into a plasticy mess, and I opted not to put it into my body. Try using Vinpocetine 2 or 3-times per day. Increase DHA to 1, mg. Increase Vitamin D3 to a least 2, IU. NADH, zinc and copper are good idea. But use 2 mg of copper. And not sure why you would want to go with Unifiram.
There are at least 6 other racetams with a lot more human clinical studies backing up their use. BTW, I should also probably mention that I have a hypoactive thyroid and take mcg of levothyroxine every morning, in case that has any bearing on the matter. Has your experience been different? My body will not convert synthetic T4 to T3 and the other bits my body can use. You must be one of the lucky ones where levothyroxine works for you.
You likely should be using iodine and selenium as well as they are required to synthesize your thyroid hormones. BTW, being hypo absolutely affects nearly everything in your body.
Jalene, I do not have an opinion on Qualia yet. But will be doing a review of their stack sometime later this year. For the initial dosage I believe you said to mg per day. Is that mg of l-dopa as a percentage from the Mucuna supplement?
That is what we are basing our dosage on. Would cycling this lower amt of L-dopa be prudent? If yes what type of cycling protocol would you recommend? But if you are experiencing the benefit of L-DOPA at that dose … then to get the full experience I recommend using it for 5 days and taking 2 days off.