Click here to view the information sources referenced in this article. Dietitians promote health through food and nutrition Archived at the Wayback Machine. Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer. Worldwide in , 38 million, or 5. The Worldwide Governance Indicators:
What is energy balance?
Health and nutritional problems also affect the lives of the elderly. This booklet provides information on several Easy-to-cook and Ready-to-eat nutritional recipes, which require minimum cooking time. The booklet also contains information on the nature of ageing process, nutrient requirement and dietary sources of nutrients.
This beautifully illustrated book educates general public on various aspects of diabetes including its types, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, prevention and dietary management. All you wanted to know about food exchange system, glycemic index, model diets, exercise regimen, insulin and other oral drugs, use of alcohol and artificial sweetners and therapeutic effect of fenugreek methi seeds are found in this book which is an information storehouse on diabetes.
This book provides in-depth information on several factors relating to heart health. Structure and function of heart, types of heart diseases, dietary and non-dietary prescription for a healthy heart, nutritive value some commonly eaten foods, heart-healthy recipes are some major aspects covered in this well illustrated book. This book written in simple, non-technical style is highly recommended for both the students of food and nutrition as well as the general public.
The nutrition knowledge imparted through this book aims to promote the concept of balanced diet and positive lifestyles right from infancy to old age. The book educates the common man to meet his nutritional needs through the judicious use of locally available, low-cost nutritious foods and informs about the deleterious effects of high calorie and cholesterol rich foods on one's health.
Students of nutrition and medical sciences, health personnel, policy makers and researchers will find this manual extremely informative and useful. Postage will be payable in addition to the price indicated. Nutritive Value of Indian Foods by C. Rama Sastri and S. Balasubramanian, Revised and Updated by B.
Depressive Disease by A. Medicinal Plants of India Vol. Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants Vol. The total number of the issues of the Journal will be 12 per year excluding Supplements Rs. Rate includes postal charges under certificate of posting by surface mail. Airmail charges would be extra, at rates applicable from time to time.
Payments through credit card and money orders are not acceptable. Purpose To work with community members in urban slums to achieve improvements in maternal and newborn care practices and care seeking.
To work with municipal health service providers to strengthen decentralised primary care:. To test replicable and scaleable models of interventions to improve maternal and newborn health. Methods The initiative's primary strategies are to encourage change through participation, self-sustaining group activities, ownership, and appreciative inquiry.
The first phase of the initiative will run for 4 years. For the purposes of management and evaluation the package will be organised into three components. Within each component, strategies will be devised by groups convened to plan interventions to improve maternal and neonatal health. Intervention will take place at a number of levels, from community to tertiary.
Aims Low birth weight LBW and childhood malnutrition continue to be major public health problems in India. It is well recognised that maternal and child health services as well as a range of behavioural factors need to work synergistically to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition and improve these key indicators which determine long term prosperity and productivity of a nation.
Both on the partners' and other experiences in India and elsewhere, interventions in the Ranchi LBW project aim to improve maternal and infant health outcomes by addressing a range of medico-social and behavioural determinants of low birth weight. The study envisages implementing and evaluating the additive effects of community level behavioural interventions in bringing about positive improvements in maternal and infant health outcomes in an area where mandated public health and related services are ensured.
This guide book is to be used as a reference book by these functionaries of health and ICDS to focus on under three. Hindi Version - 3rd Edition. Each year, around 9 million children die from preventable and treatable illnesses before reaching their fifth birthday. Many die during their first year of life. Countless more children live in precarious situations and face diminished futures. The handbook, Facts for Life , provides vital messages and information for mothers, fathers, other family members and caregivers and communities to use in changing behaviours and practices that can save and protect the lives of children and help them grow and develop to their full potential.
This version of Facts for Life builds on the three previous editions, which have been helping families and communities around the world since Newborn Health has been added to the Safe Motherhood chapter, giving attention to child survival from the first stage of life. A new chapter, Child Protection , has been included, focusing attention on the actions needed to ensure children grow up in protective environments. Facts for Life is a trusted resource that is written in easy-to-understand language.
It has been translated into languages, with over 15 million copies of the previous editions in circulation worldwide. Users are encouraged to be innovative in finding ways to extend the reach of the Facts for Life messages to help families and communities realize the rights of children and women everywhere!
Anand's Guide to Child Care. A definitive guide to the parent on pregnancy and childrearing from infancy to the teenage years. Authored by one of India's foremost paediatricians and an internationally renowned authority on breastfeeding, the book combines a knowledge of traditional childrearing practices with the latest medical developments in child care.
Anand's Guide to Child Care answers questions such as: A South Asia Priority Audience: Srikantia 61 pages - pdf 1. June 67 pages - pdf 2. India Child Malnutrition Deaths. Council for Development Studies. Right to Food litigation. National Family Health Survey Bulletin. International Institute for Population Sciences Mumbai. All information on this web site is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, kindly consult your doctor.
India What are the current states of indicators contributing to a comprehensive view of nutrition for health and development in India? Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra, India - The Maharashtra Comprehensive Nutrition Survey is the first ever state-specific nutrition survey with a focus on infants and children under-two and their mothers. Inadequate feeding of infant and young children in India: Did you know In , the number of undernourished people in the world rose to million more than the combined populations of the United States, Canada and the European Union , up 40 million from Hunger does not affect just the individual.
Economists estimate that every child whose physical and mental development is stunted by hunger and malnutrition stands to lose 5 percent to 10 percent in lifetime earnings. The total food surplus of the United States alone could satisfy every empty stomach in Africa; France's leftovers could feed the hungry in Democratic Republic of Congo and Italy's could feed Ethiopia's undernourished. Today 25, people will die from hunger. A child dies every six seconds of malnutrition or starvation.
There is enough food in the world today for everyone to have the nourishment necessary for a healthy and productive life. The global rise in food prices has pushed an estimated 40 million more people into hunger this year, UN food agency says. The financial crisis, could tip even more people into poverty and hunger, it warns. By end, the ranks of the hungry is expected to swell to 1 billion people. Number of hungry rose by million in past 6 years.
Chronic hunger is calculated by prevalence of child malnutrition in population, rates of child mortality and proportion of people who are calorie deficient. There are an estimated to million children under 18 suffering from hunger in the world today.
Between five and six million under-fives die each year from diseases which they could have survived if they were not undernourished. Hunger and India With more than million hungry people, India has the largest number of hungry in the world. On Global Hunger Index, India ranks 66th out of 68 countries.
In the index, all Indian states are at 'serious' level of hunger. Madhya Pradesh is India's most malnourished state. Nutrition Resource Platform Malnutrition in children and women remains as one of the greatest challenges in India. Nevertheless, they are invaluable in giving a clear picture of the situation on the regional or district level, together with medium-term trends. Generally speaking, their limitation is the low level of integration of data from different sectors.
A certain number of indicators, particularly those concerning the life of communities or households and not touching on the activities of the various government departments, are not routinely collected by such departments and are in any case not handed on to the regional or central offices. They are sometimes collected at irregular intervals by local authorities, but most often by non-governmental organizations for specific purposes connected with their spheres of activity - health, hygiene, welfare, agricultural extension, etc.
Analytical capabilities are often lacking at this level, and the available raw data may not have led to the production of useful indicators.
Action therefore should be taken to enhance analytical capacities or else sample surveys will have to be carried out periodically on these data in order to produce indicators. A sound knowledge of local records and their quality is needed to avoid wasting time. New collection procedures often have to be introduced for use by local units, while being careful not to overload them or divert them from their own work. Otherwise a specific collection has to be carried out by surveying village communities targeted for analysis or intervention.
These surveys are vital for a knowledge of the situation and behaviours of individuals and households and an evaluation of their relationship with the policies introduced.
In general, they offer an integrated view of the issues concerned. They may have the aim of supplying elements concerning the local situation and local analysis, in order to confirm the consensus of the population and of those in charge as to the situation and interventions to be carried out, and also to allow an evaluation of the impact of such interventions.
The participatory aspect should be emphasized rather than the precision or sophistication of data. An FAO work on participatory projects illustrates issues of evaluation, and especially the choice of indicators in the context of such projects FAO If data already collected are used or if a new survey is carried out for use on a higher level, the size and representativeness of the sample must be checked, and it must be ensured that the data can be linked to a more general set on the basis of common indicators collected under the same conditions method, period, etc.
Verification of the quality of the data is crucial. Before undertaking a specific data collection, a list of indicators and of corresponding raw data should be developed which can be used by services at all levels; it is not unusual to find that surveys could have been avoided by a better knowledge of the data available from different sources.
To track down these useful sources and judge the quality of the data available and their level of aggregation, a good understanding is needed of the goals and procedures of the underlying information system.
The country had set up a monthly national information system on production estimates for 35 crops, covering information on crop intentions, areas actually planted, crop yields and quantities harvested in each state. The information was obtained during monthly meetings of experts at various levels - local, regional and national.
The information was then put together at the state level, and then at the national level, reviewed by a national committee of experts, and sent on to the central statistics office. The different levels thus had some rich information at their disposal, coming from a range of local-level sources. Although it was certainly fairly reliable, being confirmed by a large number of stakeholders and experts, its precision could not be defined, in view of its diversity.
The usefulness of such data varies depending on information needs and thus on the quality of the data required. Data concentrated at the central level are probably useful primarily for analysing trends. On the other hand, apart from the figures, more general information on production systems exists at local level, and this can be useful for identifying relevant indicators of causes, or for simplifying monitoring of the situation.
We have seen that there is a great number of indicators which differ widely in quality; the availability of corresponding data is variable, and any active collection will be subject to constraints. Therefore the choice of indicators must be restricted to the real needs of decision makers or programme planners. This implies that a method is needed for guiding the choice. The main elements that will guide choice are: Any intervention is based on an analysis of the situation, an understanding of the factors that determine this situation, and the formulation of hypotheses regarding programmes able to improve the situation.
A general framework was presented earlier see Figure , representing a holistic model of causes of malnutrition and mortality, which was endorsed by most international organizations and nutrition planners. However, the convenient classification that it implies, for instance into levels of immediate, underlying or basic causes needs to be operationalized through further elaboration in context.
The benefit of constructing such a framework, over and above the complete review of the chain of events which determine the nutritional situation, is to allow the expression, in measurable terms, of general concepts which, because of their complexity, are not always well defined.
For example, it is not enough to refer to "food security"; one should state which of the existing definitions is to be used, on which dimensions of food security the focus is placed and the corresponding indicators. The use of conceptual frameworks when implementing programmes or planning food and nutrition is not new. Many examples have been developed, focusing on different aspects. The concept of food security is generally perceived as that of sufficient availability of food for all.
However, several dozen different definitions have been proposed over these last 15 years! This concept may, for example, comprise different aspects depending on the level being related to: In the first case, analysis will focus on agricultural production, and in the second the emphasis will be on improving the resources of those who lack access to a correct diet.
This preliminary brainstorming exercise will allow a better definition of the perceived chain of causes production shortfall, excessive market prices, defective marketing infrastructures, low minimum wage, low level of education, etc.
It will then be easier to consider potential indicators of the situation and its causes, or potential indicators of programme impact.
Obviously it is not so much the final diagram which is of importance as the process through which it was developed. Insofar as the relations between all the links of the chain of events or flow data, depending on the type of representation have been discussed step by step and argued with supporting facts, the framework will be adapted to the local situation and will become operational.
Methodologies have been developed for making this process effective in the context of planning, for example with the method of "planning by objectives" see ZOPP , which comprises several phases: During this planning process, all programme activities, corresponding partners, necessary inputs and resulting outputs as well as indicators for both monitoring implementation and evaluating impact of the programme will be successively identified.
The method acts as a guide for team work, encouraging intersectoral analysis and offering a simplified picture of the situation, so that the results of discussions are clear to all in the team. Let us again take the example of a problem of food security. It can be broken down into three determining sectors: A series of structural elements can be defined for each sector: These elements affect both production levels and operation of markets. A certain number of macro-economic or specific policies will affect one or all the elements in this block.
Each block can be considered in a similar way, and this will provide the groundwork for a theoretical model of how the system works see C. The final steps in order to operationalize the model are i that of defining indicators that will, in the specific context of the country, reflect the key elements of the system, and ii , once policies and programmes have been chosen, that of identifying which of these indicators are useful for monitoring trends and evaluating programme impact.
This will be the basis for an information system reflecting the overall framework of the programme and how it should work. Another method has been proposed by researchers from the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp based on their field experience in collaboration with different partners Lefèvre et al. Basically, it stresses the participatory aspect, with the aim of obtaining a true consensus on the local situation, the rationality of interventions in view of the situation, and the choice of indicators.
It includes first a phase in which a causal framework is developed with the aim of providing an understanding of the mechanisms leading to undernutrition in the context under consideration. The framework is constructed in the form of a schematic, hierarchized diagram of causal hypotheses formulated after discussions among all stakeholders. The way it is built tends to favour a clear, "vertical" visualization of series of causal relationships, eliminating the lateral links or loops that are often the source of confusion in other representations.
In a second phase, a framework is developed linking the human or material resources available at the onset inputs , the procedures envisaged activities , the corresponding results of implementation outputs , and the anticipated intermediate outcomes or final impact of each activity or of the programme. This tool is very useful for defining all the necessary indicators. This represents the formalisation of a real conceptual scheme.
While many representations of conceptual models comprise comparable elements, it is essential that a model should never be considered as directly transposable, since it must absolutely apply to the local context.
A direct transposition would therefore be totally counter-productive. While it is obvious that the conceptual analysis must ideally be carried out before the programmes are launched, it can be done or updated at any time, leading to greater coherence and a consensus on current and anticipated actions; this applies even more in a long-term perspective of sustainability.
In operational terms, establishment of a conceptual framework allows to define in a coherent way the various types of indicators to be used at each level. After defining the activities to be undertaken, status indicators referring to the target group will be identified, as well as indicators of causes that will or will not be modified by these activities, and indicators that will reflect the level or quality of the activities performed.
Lastly, indicators will be chosen to reflect the changes obtained, whether or not these are a result of the programme. Identification of precise objectives makes it possible to monitor changes in impact indicators not only vis-à-vis the original situation but also in terms of fulfilment of the objectives adopted. During this initial phase, existing indicators are assessed, as well as those that will be taken from records or collected through specific surveys.
It should be specified who needs this information, as well as who collects the data. In fact, it is important that this choice should be demand-driven, in order to be sure that the information selected is then actually used.
One might be dealing with several groups of users who do not exactly have the same needs: In this way, foundations can be laid for an information system essential for monitoring and evaluation. A proximate, often indirect, indicator will have to be sought and limitations to its validity in the context considered will have to be verified carefully which will depend on the precise objective. For example, can a measurement of food stocks at a given moment be validly replaced in the context under consideration with a measurement of food consumption in order to assess the food insecurity situation of a target group?
Is a measurement of food diversity a good proximate indicator for micronutrient intake? Does it at least consistently classify consumers into strong and weak consumers?
Does it allow defining an acceptable level of consumption vis-à-vis recommendations? Will it allow children to be classified correctly vis-à-vis a goal of improved growth? Validity studies are sometimes available locally, otherwise specific studies can be carried out; hence the usefulness of collaborating with research groups - for example from universities - who will be able to carry out this type of validation study under good conditions.
The relationship between two variables, making them interchangeable for defining an indicator, may vary over time as a result of implementation of a programme, and this must be taken into account. For example, if there is a clear link between family size and food insecurity in a given context, the criterion of family size can simply be taken as a basis for identifying families at risk.
However, if a specific programme has been successfully carried out among these families, this indicator could lose its validity. The ideal would be to use the same indicators in all places and at all times in order to have the benefit of common experience regarding collection and analysis, so that direct comparisons can be made. In practice, however, concepts on indicators evolve steadily with the progress of knowledge, leading to the dilemma of being unable to carry out comparisons either with older series of indicators or with what is being done elsewhere.
Comparability within time is obviously a priority in the case of monitoring. Preference will thus be given to indicators that, although not necessarily identical, are comparable, in other words give a similar type of information. The issue of the comparability of data from different sources has been the subject of studies especially in the field of health indicators. Whenever traditional indicators seem inadequate or insufficient in capturing the phenomenon or situation under consideration, the value of "innovative" and potentially promising indicators with excellent basic characteristics should not be neglected - although it is important to make sure that they have been validated for circumstances similar to those under study.
Since such innovative indicators usually have to be collected "actively", especially at the community level, the decision often depends on their technical feasibility as a guarantee of the sustainability of collection. In a context of dietary transition, an indicator expressing the structure of food consumption for example the percent of energy from fat is more subject to major changes than the average consumption level expressed in calories, while also providing important information on the future health of the population considered.
In contrast, data on food habits tend not to change rapidly, unless an education programme is specifically developed for this purpose; the repeated collection of the corresponding indicators is thus of little use for purposes of short- or medium-term monitoring of the situation.
Slowness in collection and in getting the data back to user level are key factors to be considered, for many information systems are paralyzed by this problem, while timely information is often needed for decision-making or for adjusting the programme or the intervention e.
From this point of view, the nature of potential sources of data for these indicators or the direct availability of these indicators at the level where they are needed can be decisive for their selection.
In practice, data collected to produce indicators need to be compared to a reference or to a "cut-off value". These can based on an international consensus within the scientific community or the political world, thus avoiding disagreement on interpretation and allowing comparisons between countries and regional extrapolations.
Even so, the information is still sometimes insufficient; moreover, there are no international references for several categories of indicators. In such cases, the value of the same variable at a previous date will be taken as a point of reference.
Interpretation of changes in an indicator can be carried out only on the basis of our knowledge of the original situation; knowing a baseline therefore forms part of the information value of a number of indicators.
For instance, was it better or worse before? The only information it supplies as such is the difference from a reference situation in a country without any major problem of undernutrition defined as a prevalence of 2.
The impact of a programme cannot be measured without knowledge of the situation at baseline. The existence of chronological series for an indicator will be considered when choosing among several indicators, because such series allow a rapid interpretation of impact in terms of trends. When previous data are old, an effort is made to assess their present level by projection, as is usually done for major demographic or economic indicators.
In a certain number of cases, a preliminary survey is needed in order to establish the present level of various indicators. Many countries undertook national surveys of their nutritional situation prior to establishing their policies and programmes, so that they could decide on the type or scope of the programme, and could subsequently evaluate the impact.
Such surveys are not cheap, but their cost must be examined in regard to that of the programme to be developed, and of the potential cost linked to the lack of evaluation of a programme that fails to yield the expected results. When passive collection of data from existing sources does not provide the necessary indicators in an appropriate form, active collection should be considered through surveys among the population with an appropriate level of disaggregation.
This may also be needed when the administrative coverage of the population, particularly of groups at risk, is insufficient. Firstly, it is important to consider that the preferred level of expression of the indicators varies by discipline individuals for the expression of epidemiological risks, households for the level of food security, administrative units for an economist, etc. The statistical units of measurement vary accordingly. These three expressions of the same situation cannot be treated in the same way statistically.
Data that have been collected at different levels, must be analyzed accordingly. Depending on the type of indicator required, quantitative or qualitative survey techniques will be used, each based on specific methodologies. A good understanding of the limitations of the data thus collected in terms of their interpretation, representativeness, accuracy and precision is crucial. Well-known guides written by specialists in each sphere are generally available. For the collection of data on the nutritional status of a population, for example, the WHO and FAO have published guides describing the procedures to be followed for sampling, collecting and interpreting anthropometric measurements in the context of cross-sectional surveys WHO, ; FAO, Household demographic and socioeconomic status, Dietary intake of individuals and households Nutritional anthropometry on all the available members of the households, Village level information on population, agricultural production, nutrition and other developmental programmes.
Measurement of diet related chronic diseases such as obesity and hypertension. Unique Features of NNMB Carry out repeat surveys in the same villages in all the States that were surveyed during , to assess time trends in diet and nutritional situation. Generate data periodically on diet and nutritional status of socially vulnerable groups of population such as tribal communities living in the Integrated Tribal Development Agency ITDA areas, and special group of population 'at-risk' such as 'elderly' and 'adolescents, pregnant women, etc.
The only organization involved in continuous collection of data on actual dietary intakes of households as a whole,as well as by individuals belonging to different age and physiological groups, in different states This is made possible by availability of strong contingent of multidisciplinary experts in NIN to plan and execute the community-based surveys and to carry out detailed analysis and interpretation of the data.
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